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Monday, 29 July 2013

A novel influence - Jane Austen and Cecilia

Frontispiece of Cecilia (Vol 1)
by Fanny Burney (1825)
Cecilia or Memoirs of an Heiress was Fanny Burney’s second novel and was first published on 12 June 1782, the day before her 30th birthday. Cecilia is a romance but also contains a strong moral message, not only that money does not bring happiness, but also that happiness bought at the price of duty fails to bring peace and joy.

An influence on Jane Austen

Jane Austen admired Fanny Burney’s works and was undoubtedly influenced by them in her own writings. Her name is listed as a subscriber to Burney’s third novel, Camilla.

The title of Austen’s most famous book derives from a passage in Cecilia:
“The whole of this unfortunate business,” said Dr Lyster, “has been the result of PRIDE and PREJUDICE.”(1)
A parallel with Emma

In Cecilia, the heroine befriends poor Henrietta Belfield, but is dismayed when she discovers they are in love with the same man. This is reflected in Austen’s novel Emma, where the heroine befriends poor Harriet Smith and later discovers that they are both in love with Mr Knightley.

On authors

Burney, like Austen, included in her work passages in support of reading:
“Cecilia… secured to herself, for the future occupation of her leisure hours, the exhaustless fund of entertainment which reading, that richest, highest, noblest source of intellectual enjoyment, perpetually affords.”(2)
In the same way, Burney has a dig at people who look down on authors by placing the following words into the mouth of the proud and obnoxious Mr Delvile:
“And let me counsel you to remember, that a lady, whether so called from birth or only from fortune, should never degrade herself by being put on a level with writers, and such sort of people.”(2
Notes
(1) From Cecilia or Memoirs of an Heiress - capitals as in 1825 version.
(2) From Cecilia or Memoirs of an Heiress (1825).

Sources used include
Austen, Jane, Emma (1816)
Burney, Fanny, Cecilia or Memoirs of an Heiress (1825 version)
Burney, Fanny, Diary and letters of Madame D'Arblay, edited by her niece, Charlotte Barrett (Henry Colburn, 1846, London)

Monday, 22 July 2013

Naming the royal baby – advice from 3 Georgian royals

Naming a royal baby is a huge responsibility. Other parents can choose whatever names they like, but William and Kate have to select those that are suitable for a future monarch and meet the approval of the royal family.

So what advice would the Georgian royals have given to William and Kate?

The nine sons of George III

George III and Queen Charlotte had fifteen children. The eldest was born “at twenty-four minutes past seven” on 12 August 1762 after a hard labour. Lord Huntingdon, the Groom of the Stole, pre-empted the Queen’s Vice-Chamberlain and announced to the King that the Queen had given birth to a baby girl.

Queen Charlotte
from Memoirs of her most
excellent majesty Sophia-Charlotte
Queen of Great Britain

by John Watkins (1819)
The King replied that he was “but little anxious as to the sex of the child” so long as the Queen was safe. It was just as well. The Queen had, in fact, given birth to a “strong, large and pretty boy”! The baby was christened George Augustus Frederick – the names of his father and his paternal grandparents, Augusta and Frederick. After his father’s death, he became King George IV.

George III’s other sons were named Frederick, William Henry, Edward Augustus, Ernest Augustus, Augustus Frederick, Adolphus Frederick, Octavius and Alfred. Clearly George III was very fond of the name Augustus.

The five daughters of George III

George III’s first daughter, born on 29 September 1766, was similarly given family names. She
was christened Charlotte Augusta Matilda – the names of her mother, her paternal grandmother and her aunt, George III’s youngest sister. But Princess Charlotte did not get to use her names; she was always referred to by her title, Princess Royal.

George III’s other daughters were named Augusta Sophia, Elizabeth, Mary, Sophia and Amelia. Note the recurrence of Augusta – the second name of the Princess Royal and the first of her next youngest sister.

George III’s advice for William and Kate
George III
 from Memoirs of Queen Charlotte
by WC Oulton (1819)
For a boy, William Charles Augustus – for the child’s father and grandfather and because George really liked the name Augustus.

For a girl, Catherine Charlotte Diana Augusta – for the child’s mother, father and grandmother and because George really liked the name Augusta.

The birth of Princess Charlotte Augusta


Princess Charlotte
from La Belle Assemblée (1816)
The marriage of the future George IV to his cousin Caroline of Brunswick was a complete disaster. Amazingly, in the short time that they lived together before their separation, Caroline conceived. George stayed up for two whole nights waiting for news of the birth. On 7 January 1796 he was able to tell the Queen: “The Princess, after a terrible hard labour for above twelve hours, is this instant brought to bed of an immense girl, and I assure you notwithstanding we might have wished for a boy, I receive her with all the affection possible.”

The new baby was not given her hated mother’s name, but was christened Charlotte Augusta, the names of her two grandmothers.

George IV’s advice to William and Kate

George, Prince of Wales
from Memoirs of her late
royal highness Charlotte Augusta
by Robert Huish (1818)
For a boy: George William – for himself and the child’s father - George liked himself too much to choose anyone else’s name above his own!

For a girl: Elizabeth Mary – for the child’s great grandmother and George’s favourite sister. He would not use the child’s mother’s name because he hated his own wife and would not use her grandmother’s name because it would remind him of his own failed marriage.

The birth of Queen Victoria

After the death of Princess Charlotte, the race was on to provide an heir to the throne. In 1819, the Dukes of Cumberland and Cambridge both had sons whom they named George, but the child of the Duke of Kent stood before them in line for the throne. On 24 May 1819, a daughter was born to the Duke of Kent and his wife, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.

Queen Victoria
  by Dalton after F Winterhalter
from The Girlhood of Queen Victoria (1912)
The Duke and Duchess of Kent proposed to name their daughter Victoire or Victoria after her mother, Georgiana after the Regent, Alexandrina after the Tsar and Charlotte and Augusta, after her aunts, or possibly after her grandmother and great grandmother. As a matter of form, they submitted the names to the Regent for approval. George chose to be difficult. He declared that he did not like to put his own name before the Tsar’s, but neither did he wish it to appear after it. He would not countenance the baby being given the name of his poor dead daughter and decreed that Augusta was “too majestic”.

When the christening service began, nobody knew what the baby was to be named. The Regent stated that the baby was to be called Alexandrina; the Duke of Kent proposed Elizabeth. The Regent dismissed that suggestion and finally agreed to the baby receiving her mother’s name, though he insisted that it had to follow the name of Tsar. So the baby was named Alexandrina Victoria and as a small girl, she was often called Drina.

The Duchess of Kent’s mother wrote to her daughter that she hoped she was happy with a girl. “The English like Queens,” she wrote. The Duke of Kent was delighted and proudly showed her off, telling people to “look at her well, for she will be Queen of England.” And he was right.


The Duke of Kent’s advice to William and Kate

Edward, Duke of Kent
from A Biographical Memoir of Frederick,
 Duke of York and Albany
by John Watkins (1827)
For a boy: William Charles – for the child’s father and grandfather.

For a girl: Catherine Diana Elizabeth – for the child’s mother and grandmother and great grandmother, the Queen.

What names do you think the Georgians would have chosen?

My choice? William Charles Augustus for a boy and Charlotte Catherine Diana for a girl.

Postscript

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge's first baby was a boy and has been named George Alexander Louis. George IV would have approved. The christening is to be held on Wednesday 23 October at 3pm in the Chapel Royal in St James' Palace.
 
St James' Palace
from Leigh's New Picture of London (1827)
Sources used include:
Hibbert, Christopher, George III (1998, Viking, Great Britain)
Hibbert, Christopher, George IV (1972, Longmans, 1973, Allen Lane, London)
Hibbert, Christopher, Queen Victoria (HarperCollins, 2000, London)
Huish, Robert, Memoirs of her late royal highness Charlotte Augusta (1818)
Oulton, Walley Chamberlain, Authentic and Impartial Memoirs of Her Late Majesty Charlotte, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland (1819, London)
Victoria, Queen, The Girlhood of Queen Victoria, A Selection from Her Majesty's Diaries between the years 1832 and 1840, edited Viscount Esher 2 Volumes (1912)
Watkins, John, A Biographical Memoir of Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (1827, London)

Friday, 19 July 2013

The coronation of George IV

On 19 July 1821, thousands of people crowded into the streets around Westminster Abbey in order to catch a glimpse of George IV on his coronation day.

But what was the King wearing on this day he had looked forward to for so long?

George IV’s coronation robes
George IV in his coronation robes
from A Biographical Memoir of Frederick,
 Duke of York and Albany
by John Watkins (1827)
When the King entered Westminster Hall, prior to the procession to the Abbey, at precisely 10 o’clock, he was “habited in robes of enormous size and richness, wearing a black hat with a monstrous plume of ostrich feathers, out of the midst of which rose a black heron’s plume”. (1)

These “enormous robes” consisted of a silver dress à la Henri Quatre made of silver tissue trimmed with silver lace. Over this he wore a surcoat of crimson velvet with buckle, scabbard and sword-belt, all covered with diamonds, and over this, he wore “a crimson velvet robe, nine yards in length, lined throughout with the finest ermine, and most exquisitely embroidered, representing the crown and Gloria, trophies, &c. interwoven with laurels, palm, &c.” (2)

George IV in his coronation robes
from An authentic history of the coronation
of His Majesty, King George the Fourth

  by Robert Huish (1821)
During the coronation, the robes the King was wearing were taken off and he was clothed in the robe royal or purple robe of state of cloth of tissue lined or furred with ermine. After the ceremony, this robe was taken off again and the crimson velvet robes were put back on.

The crowns
The regalia - 1 The crown of state 2 St Edward's crown
3,4 Sceptres 5 The orb 6, 7, 8 The swords
9 The ring 10 The staff 11 The coronation chair
from An authentic history of the coronation
of His Majesty, King George the Fourth
  by Robert Huish (1821)

There were two crowns - St Edward’s crown, with which King was formally crowned, and the crown of state, which had been made expressly for George IV.

St Edward’s crown was “a very rich imperial crown of gold, embellished with pearls and precious stones of divers kings, viz. diamonds, rubies, emeralds and sapphires, and a mound of gold on the top of it, encircled with a band or fillet of gold, embellished also with precious stones, and upon the mound a cross of gold, embellished likewise with precious stones, and three very large oval pearls, one at the top of the cross and two others pendant at the ends of the cross.”(2)

“The cap within the said crown is of purple velvet, lined with white taffeta, and turned up with ermine” (2) matching the purple robe of state that the King wore for the coronation ceremony itself.

The crown of state was encrusted with diamonds and the cap inside it was made of crimson velvet. This matched the elaborate coronation robes and train that the King wore to process into the Abbey and which he donned again to process back into Westminster Hall after the coronation ceremony, wearing the crown of state.

Suffering in the heat

Fortunately July 1821 was not as warm as July 2013, but the heat still caused some problems. According to Huish: “The Coronation of George IV took place in the dog-days, when although the weather was not extremely hot, and every precaution had been taken to give a proper ventilation to the Hall, yet towards the close of the banquet, the heat became so oppressive, that several of the ladies fainted, and the superb dresses of the peers and peeresses were spoiled by the profuse globules of melted wax which were continually falling upon them”. (2)

As Gossip observed: “His Majesty seemed very much oppressed with the weight of his robes. The train was of enormous length and breadth. It was of crimson velvet adorned with large golden stars, and a broad golden border. His Majesty frequently wiped his face while he remained seated.” (1)

The coronation banquet, Westminster Hall
from An authentic history of the coronation
of His Majesty, King George the Fourth
  by Robert Huish (1821)

Notes
(1) From Coronation anecdotes by Giles Gossip.
(2) From An authentic history of the coronation of His Majesty, King George the Fourth by Robert Huish.

Sources used include:
Gossip, Giles, Coronation anecdotes (1823)
Huish, Robert, An authentic history of the coronation of His Majesty, King George the Fourth (1821)

Thursday, 18 July 2013

Dress crisis for the coronation of George IV

George IV’s coronation took place on 19 July 1821. Unsurprisingly, it required a lot of planning. Unfortunately, not all the arrangements were successfully communicated and this led to a dress crisis for many of those fortunate enough to have tickets to the coronation celebration.

Court dress required
A lady in court dress  from A book explaining the ranks  and dignities of British Society (1809)
A lady in court dress
from A book explaining the ranks
and dignities of British Society (1809)
Huish (1) described the coronation dress crisis that resulted from this poor communication:

“Amongst the subjects not the least interesting, or productive of the least anxiety, was the question of dress. It had been repeatedly announced, under the authority of the Lord Chamberlain, that the dress to be worn both by ladies and gentlemen, was to be full court costume. This notification, however, not having been announced in any official form was received with doubt; and many who knew they would receive tickets for the Hall, neglected to provide themselves in the way suggested.

At length an extraordinary Gazette was published, formally confirming the statement which had been previously made. This order was seen but by few till the Tuesday preceding the Coronation, and when it was once generally known, the confusion it produced was truly comic, although to some not a little mortifying."

Dressmakers bribed

"The ladies rushed in swards to their mantua makers, and innumerable dresses, which had pined in solitude for months before, were suddenly drawn forth, and launched into unexpected gaiety.

One good effect was produced in many instances, in which heavy sums were standing in the mantua makers’ books, against the fair votaries of fashion, but which were now immediately discharged, as a bribe to execute the completion of the coronation dress in time. Wretched indeed was, however, the fate of the poor dress makers on this occasion; torn fifty ways at once, they scarcely knew how to act, and at last were incapable of meeting one half the claims of their urgent customers, who were in consequence obliged either to brave the criticism of their acquaintance, by appearing at the Coronation in tasteless attire, or altogether to sacrifice at the shrine of fashion.”

Immediate payment promised

A gentleman in court dress from  A book explaining the ranks  and dignities of British Society (1809)
A gentleman in court dress from
A book explaining the ranks
 and dignities of British Society (1809)
“But still more distressing was the situation of the gentlemen, hundreds of whom never had the honour of wearing a court dress, or perhaps even of seeing one, but who on the occasion were resolved to make any sacrifice for the sake of testifying their loyalty. Orders innumerable, with promises of immediate payment, surprised and delighted the whole fraternity of the tailors.”

Circulating costumaries

“Another class of tradesmen were not less fortunate; we allude to those convenient circulating costumaries which are to be found in sundry parts of the town, where dresses of all sorts, civil, military and ecclesiastical, may be had at five minutes notice. It was no matter whether the dress fitted the wearer – it was a court dress, and that was sufficient.”

The dangers of court dress

“The chapeau, the bag, and the sword, particularly the latter, became with many unmanageable; in some cases it was seen pendent on the right side, which was consequently the wrong one; and in many cases it intruded itself between the legs of its awkward wearer, laying him prostrated on the ground, and the lives of his Majesty’s most loyal subjects were often set at hazard from the bloodless points of the citizens’ swords.”

Note
(1) All excerpts from An authentic history of the coronation of His Majesty, King George the Fourth by Robert Huish.

Sources used include:
Huish, Robert, An authentic history of the coronation of His Majesty, King George the Fourth (1821)
Lamb, Charles (attributed), A book explaining the ranks and dignities of British Society (1809)

Tuesday, 16 July 2013

Did Regency ladies ever get sunburnt?

Seaside walking dress
La Belle Assemblée (Aug 1810)
Here in Weymouth, Dorset, we have enjoyed another day of gloriously hot sunny weather. Fortunately, I have avoided getting sunburnt, but my daughter has not been so lucky, and has a few sore red patches of skin which the sun cream missed.

It made me wonder whether Regency ladies ever “caught the sun” and what they would do about it if they did. Was it even possible to get sunburnt, given that ladies wore outfits like the seaside walking dress above when they were beside the sea?

"Good for taking off sunburnings"

I came across the following recipe for fard in The Mirror of the Graces, which says that it is “good for taking off sunburnings:

This appears to answer both my questions: ladies did occasionally get sunburnt and they may have used home-made fard to treat it.

An effective after-sun treatment?

I thought that fard sounded quite pleasant until I discovered that spermaceti was a white waxy substance chiefly found in the head cavities of the sperm whale which was widely used in the production of candles, ointments and cosmetics at the time!

A pipkin is a small earthenware or metal cooking pot with three feet and a handle which is used for cooking over direct heat, such as an open fire. Essential equipment if you wanted to make your own cosmetics in the Regency period.

Almonds, honey and whale wax. I wonder whether it was effective.

A full description of the fashionable seaside walking dress shown above

“A gown of white French cambric, or pale pink muslin, with long sleeves, and antique cuffs of thin white muslin, trimmed with Mechlen edging; made high in the neck, without a collar, and formed in points at the centre of the bosom, with three rows of letting-in lace; confined down the front of the dress with small buttons; and hemmed round the bottom with three rows of deep Mechlen lace; made rather short, and worn over trowsers of white French cambric, which are trimmed the same as the bottom of the dress. A cap composed of lace and light green silk trimming, tied under the chin, with a bunch of natural flowers in front. Hair in full ringlet curls, divided in the front of the forehead. A figured short scarf of pale buff, with deep pale-green border, and rich silk tassels; worn according to fancy or convenience; with gloves of pale buff kid; and sandals of pale yellow, or white Morocco, complete this truly simple but becoming dress.”

Read about Georgian and Regency Weymouth:
Fashionable entertainment in Regency Weymouth
George III in Weymouth
Princess Charlotte in Weymouth

Sources used include;
A lady of distinction, The Mirror of the Graces; or the English lady's costume (1811)
Bell, John, La Belle Assemblée (John Bell, 1810, London)



Monday, 8 July 2013

Wellington's victory arch

Wellington Arch, Hyde Park Corner, London
Wellington Arch, Hyde Park Corner, London
The Wellington Arch

The Wellington Arch is a victory arch, celebrating the Duke of Wellington’s defeat of Napoleon. It stands in the middle of the Hyde Park Corner roundabout opposite to Apsley House, Wellington’s London residence.

The Green Park arch

The arch was originally planned as a grand gateway to Buckingham Palace. A design by Decimus Burton was approved as part of a scheme to improve the royal parks. The arch could not straddle the road as this would limit the width of the carriageway and cause congestion. So when it was built in 1825-7, the "Green Park Arch" was placed on one side of the road, providing an entrance into Green Park, whilst a screen of pillars was placed on the opposite side of the road, providing an entrance into Hyde Park.

Design for the Green Park Arch  from Illustrations of the public buildings  of London by WH Leeds (1838)
Design for the Green Park Arch
from Illustrations of the public buildings
of London by WH Leeds (1838)
A sculpture of a quadriga – an ancient four-horsed chariot - was originally planned for the top, but the building works went over budget and so the sculpture was never built.

The controversial equestrian statue of Wellington 

The Triumphal Arch near Hyde Park from Constitution Hill  with large equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington on top  Wood engraving, prob by E Landells,  from Illustrated London News 15 August 1846  © The Trustees of the British Museum
The Triumphal Arch near Hyde Park from Constitution Hill
with large equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington on top
Wood engraving, prob by E Landells,
from Illustrated London News 15 August 1846
© The Trustees of the British Museum
During the 1830s, the Wellington Memorial Committee was formed. They wanted a fitting monument to the hero of Waterloo and thought that an equestrian statue of Wellington on top of Green Park Arch, which stood near to the Duke’s home, Apsley House, would be a suitable monument. The committee pushed through its plans and, in 1846, a huge statue of Wellington on his horse, sculpted by Matthew Cotes Wyatt, was placed on the top of the arch. The decision was widely controversial and the size of the statue was ridiculed by the cartoonists of the day as being oversized.

The Triumphal Arch near Hyde Park with large  equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington on top  Wood engraving, prob by WJ Linton,  from Illustrated London News 21 November 1846  © The Trustees of the British Museum
The Triumphal Arch near Hyde Park with large
equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington on top
Wood engraving, prob by WJ Linton,
from Illustrated London News 21 November 1846
© The Trustees of the British Museum
The government insisted that the statue should be taken down, but when Wellington declared that he would resign if they removed it, they backed down.

Constitution Arch 

In 1883-5, the statue was taken down so that the arch could be moved to its current position at the top of Constitution Hill to allow the widening of the carriageway. One side of the arch became a park-keeper’s residence whilst the other was used as a police station.

The equestrian statue of Wellington was not replaced and the arch stood empty for many years. The original equestrian statue of Wellington was moved to a new plinth near the Garrison Church in Aldershot.

The quadriga

In 1891, Adrian Jones, a sculptor, exhibited a model of a quadriga named Triumph at the Royal Academy exhibition. It was decided that this would make a fitting sculpture for the top of the arch. The resulting bronze statue of the Angel of Peace descending on the quadriga of war was mounted on the arch in 1911-12.

The Angel of Peace descending on the quadriga of war  on top of the Wellington Arch
The Angel of Peace descending on the quadriga of war
on top of the Wellington Arch
The Wellington Arch today

In the 1960s, further road improvements led to the creation of the Hyde Park Corner roundabout. The Wellington Arch became isolated in the centre of this roundabout.

Today, the Wellington Arch is in the care of English Heritage and it is possible to climb up inside it and obtain views of Apsley House and the surrounding area of London.

Sources used include:
Leeds, William Henry, Illustrations of the public buildings of London (1838)

English Heritage webpage on the Wellington Arch

Photographs © Andrew Knowles - more photos here.

Tuesday, 2 July 2013

Number one London - the home of the Duke of Wellington

Apsley House from the Wellington Arch
Apsley House from the Wellington Arch
No. 1 London

Last week, I spent a few days in London and among the places I visited was Apsley House, which is situated near Hyde Park Corner. Apsley House was the London residence of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, and was popularly known as No. 1 London because it was the first house to be reached after passing through the toll gate at Knightsbridge by people coming into London.

A family acquisition

Built by Robert Adam in the 1770s for Baron Apsley, from whom the house derives its name, Apsley House was bought by Richard Wellesley, Marquess Wellesley, in 1807. He sold it in 1817 to his younger brother, the Duke of Wellington, who purchased it for the generous sum of £40,000 out of the grant given him by parliament in honour of his military victories.

Richard, Marquess Wellesley  from The History of White's  by A Bourke (1892)
Richard, Marquess Wellesley
from The History of White's
by A Bourke (1892)
A display home

After the Duke’s successes in the Napoleonic wars, and particularly at the Battle of Waterloo, many foreign heads of state honoured him with a variety of gifts which demonstrated the best workmanship of the time. The Duke wanted to display these treasures and had many cabinets specially made to house his magnificent collection. These still form the museum room in Apsley House.

Piccadilly Room, Apsley House,  from Private Palaces of London by EB Chancellor (1908)
Piccadilly Room, Apsley House,
from Private Palaces of London by EB Chancellor (1908)
Napoleon's statue and the porter's chair

In the entrance hall stands a black hooded chair, where the porter could sit all day, waiting in case he was needed to answer the door, shielded from draughts by the chair’s hood.

At the foot of the grand staircase is a huge marble statue of Napoleon by Canova.

The Waterloo Gallery

Wellington extended Apsley House, using Benjamin Wyatt as his architect. As part of the extensions, the Duke had a long gallery built on the first floor where he could display some of his art collection and hold balls – the Waterloo Gallery. It became the venue for the annual Waterloo Banquets from 1830, allowing him to invite more guests than before because of its grand dimensions.

No doubt influenced by the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, the Waterloo Gallery was built with windows down the whole length of one side which had sliding mirror panels which could be drawn across them at night reflecting the candlelight back into the room.

Waterloo Gallery, Apsley House,  from Private Palaces of London by EB Chancellor (1908)
Waterloo Gallery, Apsley House,
from Private Palaces of London by EB Chancellor (1908)
Night attack

Apsley House had its windows broken twice by rioters. On the first occasion, in April 1831, households had been called upon to light their windows to show their support of the Reform Bill, which Wellington opposed. Apsley House was dark because the Duke was away arranging the funeral of his wife, Kitty (nee Pakenham), who had died on 24 April. Whilst her body still lay within its walls, the house was attacked by rioters who ruthlessly smashed its windows until a servant went up on the roof and fired a gun into the air to disperse the demonstrators.

After the attacks, the Duke had iron shutters fitted to his windows and it is thought that this gave rise to the popular nickname of the ‘Iron Duke’.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington,  from Life of Field Marshal, his Grace the Duke of Wellington by JE Alexander (1840)
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington,
from Life of Field Marshal, his Grace the Duke of Wellington
by JE Alexander (1840)

Apsley House today

Apsley House and much of its contents were given to the nation by the seventh Duke and the house is currently maintained by English Heritage. It remains the residence of the Dukes of Wellington today.

Sources used include:
Alexander, James Edward, Life of Field Marshal, his Grace the Duke of Wellington (1840)
Gash, Norman, Wellesley, Arthur, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1769-1852), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn Jan 2011, accessed 2 Jul 2013)

English Heritage audio tour of Apsley House
English Heritage webpage on Apsley House

Photographs © Andrew Knowles - more photos connected with Wellington.