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Wednesday, 19 July 2017

A tribute to Jane Austen who died on 18 July 1817

Jane Austen

What better way to commemorate the 200th anniversary of Jane Austen’s death than to give a talk about her, dressed in Regency costume? My audience was the Friends of Sturminster Newton Library. The venue was the Stur of the Moment tearooms in Sturminster Newton, Dorset. The programme consisted of excerpts from three of Jane Austen’s novels, together with my talk and book signing, and a Regency tea. 

Rachel outside the Stur of the Moment tearooms  in Sturminster Newton, Dorset
Rachel outside the Stur of the Moment tearooms
in Sturminster Newton, Dorset
Sense and Sensibility: Willoughby plays the hero

We started with the chapter from Sense and Sensibility where Marianne Dashwood first meets Willoughby. Hearing her words read aloud, Jane’s humour comes through afresh:
Had he been even old, ugly, and vulgar, the gratitude and kindness of Mrs. Dashwood would have been secured by any act of attention to her child; but the influence of youth, beauty, and elegance, gave an interest to the action which came home to her feelings.
She thanked him again and again; and, with a sweetness of address which always attended her, invited him to be seated. But this he declined, as he was dirty and wet.1
Pride and Prejudice: Mr Darcy’s first proposal

This was followed by the scene from Pride and Prejudice where Mr Darcy first proposes to Elizabeth Bennet (read by Andrew and me), illustrating Mr Darcy’s pride and Elizabeth’s prejudice. Elizabeth’s words later tortured her rejected suitor:
'You are mistaken, Mr Darcy, if you suppose that the mode of your declaration affected me in any other way, than as it spared me the concern which I might have felt in refusing you, had you behaved in a more gentlemanlike manner.'2
Some thoughts on Jane Austen

There is so much that I could have said of my favourite author, that I had to limit myself to a few stories inspired by the chapter on Jane Austen in my book, What Regency Women Did For Us.

Front cover of What Regency Women Did For Us by Rachel Knowles

I talked of the love interests in Jane’s life and how she often used the phrase ‘gentlemanlike’ to describe a man of whom she approved, like Tom Lefroy, whom maybe she would have married, if either of them had been rich enough to marry without thought of money. 

This naturally led onto the doomed love affair of her sister Cassandra, whose fiancé, the Reverend Thomas Fowle disastrously travelled to the West Indies and died of yellow fever before they could be married. 

Finally, I shared one of my favourite anecdotes about Jane and one of her early fans, the Prince Regent. Whilst in London, Jane was invited to visit the library of Carlton House. The Regent’s librarian hinted that the Prince would be highly gratified if she were to dedicate her next work to him. A royal ‘hint’ was little less than a command and Jane felt obliged to dedicate Emma to the Prince Regent, despite the fact that her letters make it quite clear that she hated the future king!

Carlton House from Pall Mall from Ackermann's Repository (1809)
Carlton House from Pall Mall from Ackermann's Repository (1809)
Emma: The garrulous Miss Bates

The third reading was from Emma, admirably illustrating Miss Bates’s loquaciousness:
'... And, indeed, though my mother’s eyes are not so good as they were, she can see amazingly well still, thank God! with the help of spectacles. It is such a blessing! My mother’s are really very good indeed. Jane often says, when she is here, ‘I am sure, grandmama, you must have had very strong eyes to see as you do—and so much fine work as you have done too!—I only wish my eyes may last me as well.'
All this spoken extremely fast obliged Miss Bates to stop for breath; and Emma said something very civil about the excellence of Miss Fairfax’s handwriting.
'You are extremely kind,' replied Miss Bates, highly gratified; 'you who are such a judge, and write so beautifully yourself. I am sure there is nobody’s praise that could give us so much pleasure as Miss Woodhouse’s. My mother does not hear; she is a little deaf you know. Ma’am,' addressing her, 'do you hear what Miss Woodhouse is so obliging to say about Jane’s handwriting?'
And Emma had the advantage of hearing her own silly compliment repeated twice over before the good old lady could comprehend it.3
A Regency tea

The afternoon finished with a Regency styled tea including rout drop cakes, buttered apple tarts and lemon cheesecakes.

Cakes at the Regency tea at the Stur of the Moment tearooms

Notes
(1) From Austen, Jane, Sense and Sensibility (1811, London)
(2) From Austen, Jane, Pride and Prejudice (1813, London).
(3) From Austen, Jane, Emma (1815, London).

Thursday, 6 July 2017

The Magdalen House in Regency London

The Magdalen Hospital from The Picture of London for 1829
The Magdalen Hospital from The Picture of London for 1829
What was the Magdalen House?

The Magdalen House or Magdalen Hospital1 was set up by Robert Dingley in 1758 as a home ‘for the reception of Penitent Prostitutes’2 and to provide an asylum for young women who had been seduced and might otherwise be forced into prostitution.

Robert Dingley from The Magdalen   Hospital by HFB Compston (1917)
Robert Dingley from The Magdalen
 Hospital by HFB Compston (1917)
Where was the Magdalen House?

The Magdalen House originally operated on the site of the old London Hospital in Prescott Street, Whitechapel, before moving to St George’s Fields, Southwark. The foundation stone of the new building was laid in July 1769. The Magdalen House was situated on the east side of the road leading from Blackfriars Bridge to the obelisk in St George’s Fields.

The Magdalen House later moved to Streatham and became a school in the 1930s.

What was the Magdalen House like?

The Microcosm of London described the Magdalen House at St George's Fields:
It consists of four brick buildings, which inclose a quadrangle, with a basin in the center. The chapel is an octangular edifice, erected at one of the back corners; and to give the inclosed court uniformity, a building with a similar front is placed at the opposite corner.3
The Magdalen Hospital, St George's Fields, from    The Magdalen Hospital by HFB Compston (1917)
The Magdalen Hospital, St George's Fields, from  
The Magdalen Hospital by HFB Compston (1917)
The admission process

The Magdalen House admitted new residents on the first Thursday of every month. Applicants had to visit the Magdalen and complete a numbered, printed form which they could obtain from the clerk at the door. Each applicant was then called in by number and questioned by the board to determine the sincerity and truth of their statements, and whether they had a heart to reform or just a desire for relief from poverty. If an applicant came with a friend or relation, they were questioned separately to see if their testimony corroborated that of the woman.

Often as many as twenty or thirty young women applied for admission and the committee had to choose the most deserving cases to fill the available spaces. Most of the women were aged between sixteen and twenty-five, or even younger, especially in the early days of the Magdalen. The Picture of London for 1810 exclaimed that the majority of those discharged were less than twenty years old.4

Applicants were not accepted if they were pregnant or had a venereal disease that needed to be treated at the Lock Hospital.

When they were unable to offer a place to an applicant, the committee still tried to help them, either by interceding on their behalf to enable them to return to friends or family, or by supporting them until a place became available.

Life in the Magdalen House

On entry, young women were admitted to a probationary ward and then separated into classes, depending on their situations, each class being under an assistant and the overall supervision of the matron. The Microcosm of London explained:
This separation (useful on many accounts) is peculiarly so to a numerous class of women, who are much to be pitied, and to whom this charity has been very beneficial, viz young women who have been seduced from their friends under promises of marriage, and have been deserted by their seducers: they have never been in public prostitution, but fly to the Magdalen to avoid it: their relations, in the first moments of resentment, refuse to receive, protect, or acknowledge them; they are abandoned by the world, without character, without friends, without money, without resource, and wretched indeed is their situation! To such especially, this house of refuge opens wide its doors; and instead of being driven by despair to lay violent hands on themselves, and to superadd the crime of self-murder to that guilt which is the cause of their distress, or of being forced, by the strong calls of hunger, into prostitution, they find a safe and quiet retreat in this abode of peace and reflection. To rescue from the threatening horrors of prostitution such victims of the base and ungenerous, whose ruin has frequently been more owing to their unsuspecting innocence, than to any other cause; to restore them to virtue and industry, after one false step, and to reconcile their friends, are considerations of the greatest magnitude. The committee generally give such young women the preference, because they are almost certain of the best consequences; for it scarcely ever happens but their relations relent, when, by taking shelter in this house, they have given so strong a proof of their determination to quit a vicious way of life.5
The residents of the Magdalen House were instructed in religion and reading, and trained in work that would enable them to earn an honest living when they left. This work included scullery work, house cleaning, laundry work, cooking, housework, needlework, waiting at the table, dressmaking and millinery. The laundry work brought in a considerable income to the charity in later years.

Horace Walpole visited in 1760 and wrote:
We were then shewn their work, which is making linen, and bead-work; they earn ten pounds a week.6
The women were not encouraged to confide in one another. On the wall of each ward at the Magdalen House was written:
Tell your story to no one.7
Residents stayed at the Magdalen House for different periods of time. Wherever possible, the young women were reconciled to their family or friends, if they were of good character. When this was not possible, they were trained for about two years before entering service when a suitable situation arose. No well-behaved resident was ever discharged from the Magdalen without some means of support, either through family, friends or work.

A Magdalen in 1766 from The Magdalen   Hospital by HFB Compston (1917)
A Magdalen in 1766 from The Magdalen 
Hospital by HFB Compston (1917)
The success of the Magdalen

According to The Picture of London for 1810, between August 1758 and 1 January 1807, 3,775 women were admitted to the Magdalen of which 76 remained in the house. Two thirds of those who had been discharged (2,468) had been reconciled to friends or placed in service, whilst only fifteen percent (498) had been discharged for improper behaviour. The rest had been discharged at their own request, been incurably ill or died.8

The Microcosm of London confirmed the good success rate:
During the period that it has subsisted, more than two-thirds of the women who have been admitted, have been reconciled to their friends, or placed in honest employments or reputable services. Of this number, some undoubtedly have relapsed into their former errors; but many, who left the house at their own request, have since behaved well; and several of those discharged for improper behaviour, have, to the certain knowledge of the committee, never returned to evil courses. A very considerable number are since married, and are at this moment respectable members of society. Could their names and situations be disclosed (which, for the most obvious reasons, would be highly improper), the very great utility of this charity would appear in the strongest light.9
Supporting the charity

The governors were keen to advertise the existence of the charity, both to those who might benefit from its services and to those who might support it with charitable donations. They regularly published booklets explaining the purpose and operation of the charity. The text from the 1803 edition was reused in contemporary publications writing about the Magdalen House, such as Ackermann’s The Microcosm of London and The Picture of London.

Potential benefactors and others were encouraged to visit the charity. A regulation dated 1758 said:
That Ladies, on permission in writing, may visit the Hospital, the women to be previously acquainted with the Names of such Ladies, that any of them may retire if they think fit.10
The Picture of London for 1810 said:
Companies who wish to visit this charity may be admitted, on addressing their request by letter to the committee, any Thursday; or to the treasurer, A Bennet, Esq upon any day in the week. — No fees are taken.11
The Magdalen Chapel

The Magdalen Chapel from Ackermann's The Microcosm of London (1808-10)
The Magdalen Chapel
from Ackermann's The Microcosm of London (1808-10)
Visitors were encouraged to attend services at the Magdalen Chapel. These services were so popular that for a time, tickets were issued to control numbers.

The Minutes of the charity in 1786 recorded that tickets were to be discontinued ‘and the collection was taken individually as each worshipper entered the chapel!’12

According to The Picture of London for 1810:
The hours of divine service are a quarter after eleven in the forenoon, and a quarter after six in the evening, and on account of the fascination of the singing, no place of worship in the metropolis is more worthy of the notice of a stranger. It said that the Magdalen Chapel was much frequented, and highly interesting to strangers, both from the celebrity of the preachers, and the sweetness of the music.13
Horace Walpole wrote of his visit to the Magdalen in 1760:
As soon as we entered the chapel, the organ played, and the Magdalens sung a hymn in parts; you cannot imagine how well.14
The most famous chaplain at the Magdalen was the notorious Reverend William Dodd, who held the office of preacher from 1759 until he was executed for forgery in 1777.

Rev William Dodd from The Magdalen   Hospital by HFB Compston (1917)
Rev William Dodd from The Magdalen 
Hospital by HFB Compston (1917)
The governance of the Magdalen

Queen Charlotte was patroness of the Magdalen from 1765 until her death in 1818 and was succeeded by her daughter Mary, Duchess of Gloucester.

The Magdalen’s first President was Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford (1718-1794). On his death, Lord Hertford was succeeded by Jacob Pleydell-Bouverie, 2nd Earl of Radnor (1750-1828), who was President until his death in 1828.

The Magdalen was administered by a board of governors. This committee comprised thirty-two governors who met every Thursday at midday, except on admission day when they met at eleven.

Each governor subscribed five guineas a year. A one-off subscription of twenty guineas or five guineas a year for five successive years qualified a governor for life.

General courts were held four times a year for all the governors of the charity, on the last Wednesday in January, April, July and October. The committee and officers, excepting the President, were elected at the April meeting.

Queen Charlotte from Memoirs  of Her Most Excellent Majesty   Sophia-Charlotte, Queen of Great Britain  by J Watkins (1819)
Queen Charlotte from Memoirs
of Her Most Excellent Majesty 
Sophia-Charlotte, Queen of Great Britain
by J Watkins (1819)
Notes
(1) The charity was incorporated under the name the Magdalen Hospital in 1769 but was also known variously as the Magdalen House, the Magdalen Charity and the Magdalen Institution.
(2) From Ackermann, Rudolph and Pyne, William Henry, The Microcosm of London or London in miniature Volume 2 (Rudolph Ackermann 1808-1810, reprinted 1904).
(3) From Ackermann, Rudolph and Pyne, William Henry, The Microcosm of London or London in miniature Volume 2 (Rudolph Ackermann 1808-1810, reprinted 1904).
(4) From Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1810 (1810).
(5) From Ackermann, Rudolph and Pyne, William Henry, The Microcosm of London or London in miniature Volume 2 (Rudolph Ackermann 1808-1810, reprinted 1904).
(6) From a letter from Horace Walpole to George Montagu dated 26 January 1760 in Letters from the Hon Horace Walpole to George Montagu Esq (1818).
(7) From Compston, HFB, The Magdalen Hospital (Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1917).
(8) From Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1810 (1810).
(9) From Ackermann, Rudolph and Pyne, William Henry, The Microcosm of London or London in miniature Volume 2 (Rudolph Ackermann 1808-1810, reprinted 1904).
(10) From Compston, HFB, The Magdalen Hospital (Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1917).
(11) From Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1810 (1810).
(12) From Compston, HFB, The Magdalen Hospital (Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1917).
(13) From Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1810 (1810).
(14) From a letter from Horace Walpole to George Montagu dated 26 January 1760 in Letters from the Hon Horace Walpole to George Montagu Esq (1818).

Sources used include:
Ackermann, Rudolph and Pyne, William Henry, The Microcosm of London or London in miniature Volume 2 (Rudolph Ackermann 1808-1810, reprinted 1904)
Compston, HFB, The Magdalen Hospital (Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1917)
Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1810 (1810)
Governors of the Magdalen Hospital, A short account of the Magdalen Hospital (1803)
Leigh, Samuel, Leigh's New Picture of London (1818)
Walpole, Horace, Letters from the Hon Horace Walpole to George Montagu Esq (1818)

Monday, 19 June 2017

The Unfortunate Captain Peirce by Philip Browne - a review

Front cover of The Unfortunate Captain Peirce by Philip Browne

Tales of shipwreck and lives lost at sea were commonplace in Georgian England. For a maritime tragedy to grab the headlines and become talked about across the nation, it needed to pack a serious emotional punch.

The wreck of the Halsewell, an East Indiaman, off Dorset in early January 1786, had all the right ingredients. It was the captain’s final voyage, his daughters were just two of a bevy of young female passengers, even after reaching shore the survivors were in mortal danger, and there was a dramatic clifftop rescue. Added to that was the whiff of scandal, indeed several, around the behaviour of the sailors, the East India Company, and the tragic captain himself.

All of this story has been captured in the excellent book researched and written by Philip Browne.

More than just a shipwreck

I’ve read several shipwreck narratives and the problem for the author is that the wreck itself doesn’t provide enough material for an entire book.

Philip Browne addresses this by giving us the entire history of Captain Richard Peirce. It’s a thorough account of a sailor who rose through the ranks, and made his fortune, while travelling to and from India and China.

It makes fascinating reading for anyone interested in the maritime history of late Georgian England, or the operation of the East India Company. Peirce’s voyages are described in detail, and the narrative gives plenty of insights into life aboard and around an East Indiaman.

East India House from The Old East Indiamen by EK Chatterton (1914)
East India House from The Old East Indiamen by EK Chatterton (1914)
The career of Richard Peirce

Richard Peirce joined the crew of an East Indiaman in 1759, aged 20. He presumably had earlier, undocumented, crewing experience. Philip Browne can’t trace his precise origins, and offers various theories as to his parentage and early life.

His first voyage to India, as a junior officer aboard the Houghton, was a round trip of twenty-nine months. After two more journeys to and from the east, each time at a more senior rank, he became captain of the Earl of Ashburnham in 1768.

As he tells Peirce’s story, Philip Browne provides considerable detail around the workings of the East India Company, and the opportunities it offered its officers to earn extra money from conducting private trade. As Peirce accumulated sea miles, his wealth increased, allowing him to marry and take a house in Kingston, outside London.

East Indiamen also carried passengers to India, including young women whose families wished them to find and marry a young man who was making his fortune in the east. It seems that on arrival, these women could soon expect to receive an offer, there being few eligible English women available.

In late 1778, Peirce was commander of a fresh, new ship, the Halsewell. He sailed her to and from the east twice, before setting out on his final journey in the freezing winter weather of very early January 1786.

The wreck of the Halsewell in 1786

The Halsewell East Indiaman from The Old East Indiamen by EK Chatterton (1914)
The Halsewell East Indiaman from The Old East Indiamen by EK Chatterton (1914)
Passengers aboard the Halsewell included two of Peirce’s daughters, both teenagers, who were journeying to India in anticipation of finding a husband. They were joined by other young ladies, including two cousins.

In snowy and icy conditions, Captain Peirce sailed his ship along the south coast and into a storm. The Halsewell took a battering and began several desperate days of attempted escape, ending with the ship being pulverised on the rocks of the Dorset coast.

The account of those final days was later published, based on the stories of several of the survivors. They told of how in the early part of the storm some of the sailors refused to obey commands to help, and how several feet of water accumulated in the ship’s hold before anyone spotted there was a problem.

As he tried to take his ship to shelter, Captain Peirce lost control of her to the weather. In the early hours of 6 January 1786, the Halsewell crashed against rocks at the base of a high cliff. There, in the darkness, the waves slowly pulled the vessel to pieces while the Captain, his daughters and many others cowered in his quarters. Survivors later described the scene, which various artists tried to capture in paintings and verse.

Those who somehow scrambled onto the slippery rocks were still in danger. No one knew they needed rescue, until some of them clawed their way up the cliff and walked inland to raise the alarm. Even then they may have feared for their lives, as local coastal communities had a reputation for being more interested in salvaging goods than caring for victims.

However, local quarrymen quickly set up ropes to lift survivors from the rocks, under the guidance of a local farmer and a clergyman. Being wrecked at the base of the cliffs meant the Halsewell offered little opportunity for immediate salvage.

Captain Peirce, his daughters, their cousins, and many others did not survive the wrecking of the Halsewell.

The aftermath of the wreck

Philip Browne continues the story beyond the wreck, exploring its impact on the nation. The loss of so many young women, presented through vivid eye-witness accounts of their fate, stirred emotions across the land.

Questions were asked about the ethics of shipping girls to India as brides, about the failure of sailors to do their duty, and about the competence of Captain Peirce. Had he overloaded his vessel, in order to maximise his profit from his final voyage?

The book explores these questions, and details how the story of the wreck was presented in various arts. It clearly made an impression on the nation, and even King George III went to visit the site of the disaster in 1789.

I recommend The Unfortunate Captain Peirce to anyone interested in late Georgian maritime history, or in the story of the East India Company and how our nation traded with India and China. Thoroughly researched and well-written, it achieves a good balance between telling a story and presenting facts.


Thursday, 8 June 2017

The Lyceum Theatre in Regency London

The Proscenium of the English Opera House (The Lyceum)  as it appeared on March 21 1817 with Walker's Exhibition, the   Eidouranian from The Lyceum and Henry Irvine by A Brereton (1903)
The Proscenium of the English Opera House (The Lyceum)
as it appeared on March 21 1817 with Walker's Exhibition, the 
Eidouranian from The Lyceum and Henry Irvine by A Brereton (1903)
Profile

The Lyceum Theatre was built as an exhibition space which was later converted into a theatre. It did not have a patent for performances during the winter season, but from 1809 to 1812, the Drury Lane Theatre company performed at the Lyceum under their own licence whilst their theatre was being rebuilt. The Lyceum was hired for a variety of purposes including private theatricals, exhibitions and concerts, and later specialised in English Opera.

The Society of Artists

The original Lyceum was built on the Strand on a site near that of the current Lyceum Theatre. It was designed by the architect James Paine as an exhibition space for the Society of Artists of Great Britain.

It has been suggested that the Lyceum was built in 1765, predating the formation of the Royal Academy of Arts by three years. This would seem to be supported by The Microcosm of London which stated:
Previous to the institution of a Royal Academy, there was an exhibition at the Lyceum in the Strand. It was denominated THE SOCIETY OF ARTISTS OF GREAT BRITAIN; and the profits were to be applied to the relief of distressed artists, their widows and children. In this place were exhibited some very fine productions by Mortimer and other of our most celebrated painters.1
However, Austin Brereton in his 1903 book The Lyceum and Henry Irving recorded that the foundation stone was not laid until 1771 and that the exhibition centre opened on 11 May 1772.

According to Old and New London: ‘The apartments consisted of a large saloon, with a sky-light, and lesser rooms adjoining.’2
 
Interior of the Lyceum in 1790  from The Lyceum and Henry Irvine by A Brereton (1903)
Interior of the Lyceum in 1790
from The Lyceum and Henry Irvine by A Brereton (1903)
A myriad of exhibitions

The Society of Artists was unable to compete with the Royal Academy and the venture failed. The Lyceum was sold and let out to anyone who could pay the rent. Around 1794, Samuel Arnold leased the building and converted it into a theatre, but he could not obtain a licence to perform plays there due to the intense opposition from the Theatres Royal at Drury Lane and Covent Garden.

At various times, the Lyceum was used by a public debating society and as a saleroom and to house different exhibitions. The Picture of London for 1805 said:
During the winter season, there are generally a variety of occasional exhibitions, particularly at the Lyceum in the Strand, as Phillipstal’s Phantasmagoria, and Cartwright's Philosophical Glasses.3
These included:
  • An aeropyric branch
  • Mr Diller’s Philosophical Fireworks
  • The Irish giant, Mr O’Brien, who was said to be over 8 feet tall
  • Mr Cartwright’s Musical Glasses
  • The display of a rhinoceros, a zebra and an ostrich

    Advert for animals on display at the Lyceum (1791)  from The Lyceum and Henry Irvine by A Brereton (1903)
    Advert for animals on display at the Lyceum (1791)
    from The Lyceum and Henry Irvine by A Brereton (1903)
  • The Phantasmagoria
    The Picture of London for 1802 stated:
The Phantasmagoria; at the Lyceum.
This exhibition consists simply of a new application of the common magic lanthorn; the images, instead of being thrown, in the usual way, upon a white sheet, are thrown upon a transparent scene, which is hung between the lanthorn and the spectator. The images are consequently seen through the scene, are more distinct, and the effect to the spectator is greatly improved. To prevent the passage of extraneous light, the sliders are painted black, except on the part on which the figures are painted. The motion of the eyes and mouth, in some figures, is produced by double sliders.
The admittance is four shillings to the boxes, and two shillings to the pit. Some weak imitations have been exhibited in other parts of the town.4
  • A second phantasmagoria was also advertised in the same year:
The Egyptiana, and Phantasmagoria; at the Lyceum in the Strand.
This consists of various scenery, drawn and designed from nature in Egypt; and, by way of relief, there is an intermixture of recitations. The plan of exhibiting the scenery of foreign countries upon a. large scale, deserves encouragement; and, it is to be hoped, that it will in due time be extended to other countries besides Egypt: and thus amusement be made a vehicle of historical knowledge. Phantasmagoria are added.4
  • Madame Tussaud’s waxworks
    Philipstal and his phantasmagoria have long been forgotten, but his business partner at the time has not. That partner was Madame Tussaud, who travelled to England with Philipstal in 1802 to exhibit her waxworks at the Lyceum. These were not the first waxworks to go on display at the Lyceum. For several seasons in the 1780s, Mr Silvester had exhibited his waxworks there.

    Madame Tussaud from Madame Tussaud's   Memoirs and Reminiscences of France (1838)
    Madame Tussaud from Madame Tussaud's 
    Memoirs and Reminiscences of France (1838)
    It is interesting to note that the Picture of London for 1802 did not include any reference to Madame Tussaud’s waxworks. I discovered when researching Madame Tussaud’s story for What Regency Women Did For Us that Philipstal was responsible for all the advertising for their exhibitions. Madame Tussaud complained that Philipstal did not mention her on the advertisements and I wonder whether that might account for why her exhibition is not mentioned in the Picture Of London.
  • Mr Porter’s pictures
    Robert Kerr Porter exhibited several large paintings over a number of seasons at the Lyceum, including The Battle of Alexandria in 1802 and The Storming of Seringapatam in 1805. The Picture of London for 1802 advertised the Picture of the Battle of Alexandria:
Mr Porter, at the Lyceum, in the Strand, has lately opened an exhibition of a large picture, representing the celebrated battle between the English and French armies, on the 23d of March, 1801, before Alexandria, in Egypt. The subject is connected with the national vanity, and will, therefore, no doubt, draw large assemblages of spectators. The admission is one shilling.4
Theatrical entertainments

Although the Lyceum did not have a licence for theatrical performances, it was able to show other entertainments. These included:
  • Flockton’s puppet show
  • Theatrical imitations by George Saville Carey called The Diversions of an Evening
  • Mr Dibdin’s New Entertainment.
    Charles Dibdin was a famous songwriter and his show ran for 108 nights at the Lyceum in the autumn of 1790 alone.
  • Astley’s Circus
    When Astley’s Amphitheatre at Westminster Bridge burn down in 1794, Philip Astley transferred part of his circus to the Lyceum whilst it was rebuilt.
  • Boxing in Mendoza’s Academy
    Champion boxer Daniel Mendoza opened a boxing academy in the Lyceum in 1789. Spectators could watch a fight between one and three o’clock and the prices were 1s 6d for boxes and 1s for the gallery. The proprietor of the Lyceum advertised the academy saying:
    As Daniel Mendoza has divested his Exhibition of every degree of Brutality and rendered the Art of Boxing equally neat with Fencing, he thinks it necessary to mention that his Plan does not exclude the Company of Ladies.5
    Polite Amusement or an Exhibition of Brute Beasts at the Lyceum   from The Lyceum and Henry Irvine by A Brereton (1903)
    Polite Amusement or an Exhibition of Brute Beasts at the Lyceum
    from The Lyceum and Henry Irvine by A Brereton (1903)
  • The Loyal Theatre of Mirth
    In 1805, the Lyceum put on a Grand Spectacle called The Female Hussar.
  • The emperor of all the conjurors
    The Picture of London for 1809 stated that:
A licence has likewise been obtained for a theatre in Catherine-street for conjurors; and another at the Lyceum, in the Strand, for the same purpose. The one is conducted by Mr. Ingleby, who has assumed the title of king of the conjurors; the other by Mr M, who stiles himself emperor of all the conjurors.6
Private Theatricals

The theatre was also used for private theatricals. The Picture of London for 1806 stated:
Private Theatres.
Upon a small scale may be mentioned those of Tottenham-court-road, Berwick-street, and the Lyceum in the Strand; in the two latter of which not less than ten different companies perform. Tickets are delivered gratis by the performers to their friends, and are procured, in their respective neighbourhoods, without much difficulty.7
The Drury Lane Theatre company at the Lyceum (1809-1812)

In 1809, Samuel Arnold applied for a licence for the Lyceum, but was only granted a licence from 3 June to 3 October for ‘musical works of a light order’.8

However, when the Drury Lane Theatre burnt down on 24 February 1809, the company performed at the Lyceum under their own licence from 11 April 1809. It continued to perform there until the new Drury Lane Theatre opened in October 1812. According to Austin Brereton, Arnold did not fare badly by this arrangement. He received £900 a year and a third of the profit for the three seasons that the Drury Lane company performed at the Lyceum.

English Opera

During the summer, the Lyceum was used mostly for operas, burlettas and other musical pieces. It was known by different names at this time – sometimes the Theatre Royal, Lyceum, and sometimes as the Theatre Royal English Opera. The Picture of London for 1813 stated:
Mr. Arnold, author of a variety of dramatic pieces of superior merit, and son of Dr Arnold, of musical celebrity, has tried, with deserved success, the experiment of an English opera during the two last seasons at the Lyceum. We can assert, that it has afforded the highest gratification, and is one of the most elegant entertainments to an English ear which the metropolis affords. An English school of harmony, like an English school of painting, has been thought a solecism by some conceited critics, but many of the performances of the Lyceum have proved the falsehood of those observations, as much as the exhibitions of English painters have proved the error of foreign critics.
The English Opera is under the joint management of Messrs. Arnold and Raymond, and its whole conduct evinces superior taste and great public spirit.
The prices of admission are the same as those of the Drury-lane Company at the same house.9
These prices were: 7s to the boxes; 3s 6d to the pit and 2s and 1s to the galleries.

Samuel Arnold’s new theatre (1816-1830)

The Lyceum was rebuilt by Samuel Arnold in 1816 to a design by playwright and theatre architect Samuel Beazley (1786-1851) at a cost of £80,000. It was known as the English Opera House.

It opened on 17 June 1816 with a performance of Arnold’s opera Up All Night.
“The front is in line with the houses on the north side of the Strand. It has a stone portico, supported by eight Ionic columns, between which” (in 1825) “suspended large gas lanterns. The columns are connected by an inclosure of fancy iron-work, and support a stone balcony, with rounded balustrades; in the centre of which is a large square tablet, in which is engraved the word ‘Lyceum’. Above this, are three tiers of windows (three in a tier) surmounted by a neat pediment; and the second and third tiers are divided by bands, on the upper of which appears ‘Theatre Royal’ and on the lower ‘Lyceum Tavern’. The lower part of the building, under the portico, contains two admission doors to the boxes and pit, and one window. The entrances to the two galleries, and another to the pit, are in a court communicating with the Strand and with Exeter Street; and in the latter street is the stage-door. A long passage and a staircase lead to the boxes, whence there is an entrance to a long room, called The Shrubbery, from a large quantity of green and flowering shrubs being placed in the centre and corners of the room, rising pyramidically to the ceiling.”10
The auditorium was in the shape of a lyre. There were two tiers of twenty boxes and four ‘pigeon-holes’ or small boxes on each side of the stage.

On 6 August 1817, the Lyceum introduced gas light on the stage and later that year, it lit the auditorium by gas as well.

Lyceum Theatre, Box Entrance (in the Strand), 1825  from The Lyceum and Henry Irvine by A Brereton (1903)
Lyceum Theatre, Box Entrance (in the Strand), 1825
from The Lyceum and Henry Irvine by A Brereton (1903)
Mixed fortunes

The Lyceum struggled to find steady success. Some entertainments drew in the crowds, but in 1817, the Lyceum was putting on two shows a night, at 6pm and 9.30pm, in order to increase its profitability. Some of the more notable entertainments held at the Lyceum during this period were:
  • A Grand Venetian Festival and Masqued Ball on 17 February 1817
  • Gentlemen’s tickets were priced at £1 11s 6d and ladies’ tickets at £1 1s 0d, with supper tickets, including wines 10s 6d each. 
  • Walker’s Eidouranian
    A scientific and astronomical lecture, featured in the print at the top of this post.
  • The Gathering of the Clans
    A Scottish entertainment including highland dances and reels and an exhibition of broad sword playing. It was first shown on 10 February 1818 under the express patronage of the Duke of Sussex and several highland noblemen.
  • Charles Mathew’s one-man shows
    On 2 April 1818, Charles Mathews announced he was ‘At Home at the Theatre Royal English Opera House’ with Mail Coach Adventures which ran, very successfully, until 17 June. He returned in subsequent seasons with different shows including A Trip to Paris and Country Cousins and the Sights of London.

    Charles Mathews from The Lyceum and Henry Irvine by A Brereton (1903)
    Charles Mathews from The Lyceum and Henry Irvine by A Brereton (1903)
  • The Vampire
    A melodrama, successfully performed from 1820.
  • Carnivals
    These were fancy dress balls held at the Lyceum in 1821 for the price of 1 guinea admission. Supper tickets were an additional ½ guinea and guests were advised that private rooms could be engaged in advance and that there would be plenty of police around to ensure security.
The Covent Garden theatre company performed at the Lyceum from 17 November 1828 when its building was temporarily closed after a gas explosion. 

The later years

On 16 February 1830, in the early hours of the morning following the first performance of Les Trois Quartiers, the English Opera House was completely destroyed by fire. The theatre was immediately rebuilt to a design by Samuel Beazley, with its main entrance now onto Wellington Street rather than the Strand. It opened as the new Theatre Royal Lyceum and English Opera House on 14 July 1834.

The Lyceum was rebuilt in 1904 by Bertie Crewe, but retained Beazley’s façade and grand portico. The Lyceum Theatre still operates as a theatre in the West End of London today.

Lyceum Theatre (2015)
Lyceum Theatre (2015)
Notes
(1) From Ackermann, Rudolph, and Pyne, William Henry, The Microcosm of London or London in miniature Volume 1 (Rudolph Ackermann 1808-1810, reprinted 1904)
(2) From Walford, Edward, Old and New London: A narrative of its history, its people, and its places (Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1873, London) Vol 3
(3) From Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1805 (1805)
(4) From Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1802 (1802)
(5) From Brereton, Austin, The Lyceum and Henry Irving (1903)
(6) From Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1809 (1809)
(7) Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1806 (1806)
(8) From Brereton, Austin, The Lyceum and Henry Irving (1903)
(9) From Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1813 (1813)
(10) From Brereton, Austin, The Lyceum and Henry Irving (1903)

Sources used include:
Ackermann, Rudolph, and Pyne, William Henry, The Microcosm of London or London in miniature Volume 1 (Rudolph Ackermann 1808-1810, reprinted 1904)
Brereton, Austin, The Lyceum and Henry Irving (1903)
Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1802 (1802)
Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1805 (1805)
Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1806 (1806)
Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1807 (1807)
Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1809 (1809)
Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1810 (Jan 1810)
Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1813 (1813)
Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1818 (1818)
Walford, Edward, Old and New London: A narrative of its history, its people, and its places (Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1873, London) Vol 3

Monday, 15 May 2017

Coelebs in Search of a Wife by Hannah More (1808) – a review

Gentleman's full dress  from Ackermann's Repository (1810)
Gentleman's full dress
from Ackermann's Repository (1810)
Coelebs in Search of a Wife 1 could perhaps be more aptly named Reader in Search of a Story! If you pick up this book expecting an action-filled tale of romance and adventure, you will be disappointed. Not much happens! There is a gentle storyline following the hero, Charles, as he looks for a wife, but the book is less about the love story and more about the different people he meets. 

This is what I found fascinating. Hannah More painted a series of character portraits based on her observations, giving the modern-day reader an insight into how people were living their lives in the early 1800s. In particular, More looked at the subject of religion and how people’s beliefs were worked out in their day-to-day lives – or not!

It seems incredible to us that, early on in the book, More felt it was necessary to make an apology, suggesting that ‘the religious may throw it aside as frivolous’.2 I guess it might have seemed frivolous compared to a book of sermons!

It is much easier to understand why she also pre-empted the criticism of the novel reader whom she thought might ‘reject it as dull’. The book is full of good conversation and good advice but, as I’ve already mentioned, very little action takes place.

That said, the book was very popular in its time, and others tried to mimic More’s success with titles such as Nubilia in Search of a Husband. The popularity of Coelebs and the charitable character of its heroine, Lucilla Stanley, helped to make it fashionable to care for the poor.

Hannah More from Memoirs of the life and correspondence  of Mrs Hannah More by William Roberts (1835)
Hannah More
from Memoirs of the life and correspondence 
of Mrs Hannah More by William Roberts (1835)
A summary of the story

What Charles is looking for in a wife

The hero, Charles, lives at the Priory in Westmoreland, where he has been living a retired life, attending his father through his final illness and then supporting his mother until her death. He is now eager to find a wife. His own ideas of the ideal woman are based on Eve in Milton’s Paradise Lost.

Before his death, his father had counselled him to choose a wife who was informed, cultivated and refined. 
The exhibiting, the displaying wife may entertain your company, but it is only the informed, the refined, the cultivated woman who can entertain yourself. 
You will want a companion: an artist you may hire.
He had also urged him not to choose a wife until he had visited his old friend Mr Stanley, who lived at Stanley Grove in Hampshire.

His mother had also given him advice, saying that many unobjectionable characters were not designed to give rational happiness in marriage. She advised him:  
It is not unreasonable to expect consistency.
Charles spells out what he is looking for in a wife: 
I do not want a Helen, a Saint Cecilia, or a Madame Dacier; yet she must be elegant, or I should not love her; sensible, or I should not respect her; well-informed, or she could not educate my children; well-bred, or she could not entertain my friends; consistent, or I should offend the shade of my mother; pious or I should not be happy with her, because the prime comfort in a companion for life is the delightful hope that she will be a companion for eternity.
The search begins

Charles visits some of the local families before heading for London on his way to Mr Stanley’s house. Everywhere he goes, he meets potential brides and becomes aware of numerous inconsistencies in people’s characters.

Charles finds Mr Stanley as amiable as he had hoped. Mr Stanley has the ability to say the right thing at the right time and to turn discussions on non-religious subjects into useful instruction. Mrs Stanley has the ability to bring out the best in people. She laments the damage done by novels by establishing the omnipotence of love, encouraging young readers to unresistingly submit to a feeling.

Lucilla Stanley   

Morning dress  from Ackermann's Repository (1811)
Morning dress
from Ackermann's Repository (1811)
Mr and Mrs Stanley have a family of daughters: 18-year-old Lucilla, 15-year-old Phoebe and several younger girls. They lost their only son some years before. Lucilla is everything that Charles wants in a wife. She is intelligent, kind, truly good and charitable, and modest with it. She has been doing the housekeeping since she was 16 and sets aside a day each week to serve the poor and visits them two evenings a week in their homes. She and her sisters have built up a large stock of clothing that they give out at Christmas.

The Stanleys believe too much time is spent on music for exhibition rather than developing conversation, and so Lucilla is cultured rather than accomplished. 
The excellence of musical performance is a decorated screen, behind which all defects in domestic knowledge, in taste, judgement, and literature, and the talents which make an elegant companion, are creditably concealed.
Fashionable afternoon and morning dress from Lady's Magazine (1807)
Fashionable afternoon and morning dress
from Lady's Magazine (1807)
Charles falls in love with her and asks Mr Stanley for her hand in marriage. Charles is told not to rush, but to stay a month and get to know Lucilla better and win her affections.

Lucilla is not without other suitors and Charles is jealous of Lord Staunton. Lucilla has rejected him once because of his loose principles, but he has not taken ‘no’ for an answer. He has told her that she can reform him. Lucilla refuses to accept a man with promises of reform because if he failed to reform, ‘it would be too late to repent of my folly, after my presumption had incurred its just punishment.’ Charles fears that Lord Staunton will genuinely reform and be accepted.

Charles’s new carriage arrives and Lucilla’s youngest sister, Celia, is afraid that Charles is going to go home. Charles invites her to go with him. She innocently says that she will go to the Priory with him if Lucilla will go too, making her poor sister blush. Despite the promised month not being up, Charles proposes and Lucilla accepts him.

Elliott's patent eccentric laundaulet or chariot   from Ackermann's Repository (1809)
Elliott's patent eccentric laundaulet or chariot
from Ackermann's Repository (1809)
When Charles goes to Mr Stanley to ask for his blessing, he discovers that Mr Stanley and his father had hoped that he would marry Lucilla, although they realised that it was not likely. The two fathers had resolved to keep their children apart until they were adults and then see if they were attracted to each other, but to say nothing, so there would be no compulsion on their part to marry if they were not inclined. Charles and Lucilla were delighted that their marriage had been long hoped for – an extra blessing to their union.

A bevy of little stories

The people that Charles meets along his journey each have a little story of their own, containing examples of good behaviour and bad, and how people either suffered the consequences of their folly or profited from adopting better habits. Here is a summary of some – but by no means all – of these stories.

Sir John and Lady Belfield were religious at heart but it did not affect the way they behaved. Sir John had found that too much religion could damage a man’s reputation. Lady Belfield was over indulgent towards her children. After visiting Stanley Grove and talking with and observing Mr and Mrs Stanley and their family, they made the decision to reduce the time they stayed in London over the winter and instruct their children better.

Mr and Mrs Carlton started off as an unmatched couple, obliged to marry to keep property within the family. Mr Carlton was irreligious and unkind whilst Mrs Carlton was devoutly religious. Although she had been in love with someone else, she lived out her faith in front of her husband, never allowing herself to criticise him and excelling in her domestic duties. Her faithful witness eventually won over her husband.

Ned Tyrrel had been at college with Mr Stanley but turned very dissolute. Later he reformed, but became addicted to ambition and then money, and he adopted some very extreme ideas about religion based on forgiveness without reform. Only when he becomes ill and is about to die does he suddenly realise how hollow his religion is.

Lady Melbury is a very popular lady in London’s high society. She is very charitable, but also very profligate. This comes to a head when she proposes to give a poor girl in a flower shop who is caring for her sick mother her custom but then realises it is her own failure to meet her debts that caused the poverty of the family in the first place. She claims she will give up gambling and never get in debt again, but finds it hard to resist the influence of others. It is only when she is left alone to think about her faults that the change really occurs. She saves enough money to pay off her debt by retiring to the country and cancelling a big entertainment she had planned. She resolves to live a retired life to avoid the contaminating influence of London society.

Opera dress from  Ackermann's Repository (1809)
Opera dress from
Ackermann's Repository (1809)
Lady Denham gives the appearance of religiosity but has no real feeling. She blames her inability to support charity on taxes and yet finds it possible to give generously to her favourite opera singer Signor Squallini’s benefit concert. With her, music is supreme. She gets her come-uppance when her daughter elopes with Squallini.

Lady Aston had lived a retired life in the country ever since her husband’s death. She saw it as a duty to mourn him and would not let her daughters do anything. As a result, they were wasting their time. Mr Stanley encouraged the girls to set up a school for the poor and read with the curate. The whole family became much happier.

Mr and Mrs Ranby had a reputation for being pious, but their religion consisted of a ‘disproportionate zeal for a very few doctrines’. Mrs Ranby was coarse and censorious and gave no religious instruction to her daughters who wasted their time. She thought it was enough to pray for them! Mrs Ranby did not see the relevance of religion to everyday matters, such as governing her temper.

Mr Stanhope was drawn in by beauty to an unequal marriage. His wife held his books in great aversion and was ill-informed and bad tempered. An example of a marriage where two people were ‘joined not matched’.

To protect each other from worry, Mr and Mrs Hamilton had tried to conceal their illnesses from each other for the first seven years of their marriage. They came to realise that concealment was dangerous even when the intentions were good. 
Unreserved communication is the lawful commerce of conjugal affection, and all concealment is contraband.
Miss Sparkes, a single lady of 45 who was neither poor nor ugly, was very masculine in her habits – she was a politician, a huntsman, a farrier and a coachman. She believed that clever men married stupid women because they feared a rival, and that a woman who excelled in domesticity must be downtrodden.

A noble hunting party by T Rowlandson  from Dr Syntax's Three Tours by William Combe (1868)
A noble hunting party by T Rowlandson
from Dr Syntax's Three Tours by William Combe (1868)
Mr Flam had good deeds without religion. Dr Barlow, the minister, warns him that he is as much at risk as Mr Tyrrel and his sham religion. However, Mr Flam is young and thinks he has plenty of time ahead of him to sort things out.

Notes
(1) Sometimes written as Cœlebs in Search of a Wife.
(2) All quotes taken from Cœlebs in Search of a Wife by Hannah More, (New York, 1859, edition).

Sunday, 30 April 2017

What Regency Women Did For Us is out now!

Front cover of What Regency Women Did For Us by Rachel Knowles

Today is the UK release date for my new book, What Regency Women Did For Us. The book tells the inspirational stories of twelve women who lived in the Regency period – women whose lives made an impact on the world in which they lived and whose influence can still be felt in some measure today. These women were pioneers for their sex – scientists and authors, actresses and educators, philanthropists and businesswomen – and some of them going where no woman had been before.

Twelve inspirational Regency women

Eleanor Coade was a successful businesswoman who ran an artificial stone manufactory. Coade stone was used to make statues and decorative plaques, many examples of which have survived into the 21st century. You may, perhaps, have seen some of her Coade stone without even realising it. Could you tell that this statue of the River God at Ham House in Richmond, London, was made of Coade stone?

River God statue at Ham House, Richmond
River God statue at Ham House, Richmond
Caroline Herschel’s story is one of hard work and determination. Could a poorly educated German woman, struggling to speak English, become an astronomer in order to help her beloved brother William in his research?

Sarah Siddons was the most famous tragic actress of her time, playing parts such as Lady Macbeth so convincingly that female members of her audience were sometimes sent into hysterics. But it was her respectability that really made a difference to the position of female actors.

Sarah Siddons as Lady Macbeth  after painting by GH Harlow
Sarah Siddons as Lady Macbeth
after painting by GH Harlow
Marie Tussaud was probably the most successful female entrepreneur of her time. She came to England after the French Revolution and travelled widely with her waxworks exhibition before eventually settling in London. Madame Tussauds is still a big tourist attraction in London today. But what was it about Marie’s business that set it apart from those of her rivals and helped it to survive into the 21st century? 

Mary Parminter was very unusual for a wealthy Georgian woman. Not only did she choose not to get married; together with her sister and cousin, Jane, she went on a Grand Tour of Europe. But their idea of a Grand Tour was not just seeing the regular sights – it included 200 miles of walking in the Alps and climbing Mont Buet! Perhaps it was hardly surprising that the house that Mary and Jane built when they returned – A la Ronde – was also not what you would have expected.

Packing case on display at A la Ronde
Packing case on display at A la Ronde
Maria Edgeworth is little known today, but in her time, she was much better known than Jane Austen, and much more financially successful. Though her books have largely been forgotten, she is credited with being the inventor of historical fiction – a genre which we take for granted today.

Jane Marcet attended lectures in chemistry at the Royal Institution, but struggled to understand them without her husband’s help. She realised that many women did not have her advantages and decided to write a simple textbook using everyday language to share her new-found knowledge – a ‘Dummies Guide’ to Chemistry. Although intended for a female audience, it was not only women who were influenced by her work. 

Sarah Guppy was a talented scientist and inventor who, even though she was a woman, mixed with and influenced some of the leading scientists of her day. Just how much she had to do with the design of the Clifton Suspension Bridge remains open to conjecture.

Jane Austen is the only one of the twelve women who did not live through the whole Regency period. All her books were, however, published during the Regency, and were popular with the Prince Regent (later George IV) who was such a big fan that Jane felt obliged to dedicate Emma to him. I wonder what Jane would have thought of the worldwide industry that ‘love of Jane Austen’ has become?
Harriot Mellon’s life is a real-life rags to Regency riches story. Starting out life with a band of touring players, she rose to some measure of success on the stage due to a good memory, a pretty face and a pushy mother. But her life changed forever when the wealthy banker Thomas Coutts became her ‘fairy godfather’.

Elizabeth Fry was only the second woman to be depicted on a British banknote, in remembrance of her pioneering work in prison reform. Perhaps less well known is that some also consider her to be the founder of modern nursing.

Elizabeth Fry from Elizabeth Fry, the angel of the prisons by LE Richards (1916)
Elizabeth Fry from Elizabeth Fry,
the angel of the prisons

by LE Richards (1916)
Mary Anning lived all her life in Lyme Regis in Dorset and became an expert fossil finder. But did you know that Mary was famous long before she found her first fossil? Her miraculous escape from death as a baby was often cited in local guidebooks at the time.

You can read the stories of all these women in What Regency Women Did For Us.

Available direct from Pen and Sword history books here.

Available from Amazon UK here: What Regency Women Did for Us

Available for preorder from Amazon.com here: What Regency Women Did For Us