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Thursday, 14 December 2017

The Persian ambassador's visit to London in 1809-10

Mirza Abul Hassan Khan by Sir Thomas Lawrence (1810)  in Fogg Art Museum  Photo by Daderot CCO via Wikimedia Commons
Mirza Abul Hassan Khan by Sir Thomas Lawrence (1810)
in Fogg Art Museum
Photo by Daderot CCO via Wikimedia Commons
Profile

Mirza Abul Hassan Khan (1776-1845) was an Iranian envoy who came to England on diplomatic missions in 1809-10 and again in 1818, and was known as the Persian ambassador.

The Persian ambassador in England (1809-10)

Mirza Abul Hassan came to England in 1809 to secure the ratification of the Anglo-Persian treaty made between Sir Harford Jones and Qajar Shah, Fath Ali. This was the first time that the Persians had negotiated directly with the British rather than through the East India Company.

During his visit, he was known as Mirza Abul Hassan without the ‘Khan’ – this was a title given to him later by the Shah. His official title was “Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary” but he was known as the Persian ambassador and given the higher status of an ambassador rather than an envoy.

His visit lasted from 29 November 1809 when he landed in Plymouth to 18 July 1810 when he set sail from Portsmouth. The King appointed Sir Gore Ouseley, who was fluent in Persian, to be his host. Sir Gore was later appointed Ambassador to the Shah of Iran.

The Persian ambassador was easily offended if he felt he was not receiving enough respect as the Shah’s representative, and he became frustrated that it took so long to complete his diplomatic mission. In the meantime, the ambassador explored British culture, visiting the attractions of London and being entertained by her people. His visit provoked widespread interest and all things Persian became highly fashionable.

Evening dress - an Albanian robe in Sicilian blue  with a Persian helmet cap from Ackermann's   Repository (January 1810)
Evening dress - an Albanian robe in Sicilian blue
with a Persian helmet cap from Ackermann's 
Repository (January 1810)
Mirza Abul Hassan had his portrait painted by Sir William Beechey for the East India Company and again by Sir Thomas Lawrence (shown above).

The Persian ambassador returned to England in 1818 in a failed attempt to gain British support against Russia.

The Book of Wonders

Mirza Abul Hassan kept a detailed journal of his visit which was known as The Book of Wonders. This journal has been translated and edited by Margaret Morris Cloake and published under the title A Persian at the Court of King George, 1809-10: The Journal of Mirza Abul Hassan Khan (1989). Because his culture was so different from that of the British, this journal included many details about customs and events that other contemporary accounts don’t think to include.

Front cover of A Persian at the Court of King George 1809-10 edited by M Cloake 1989

The Persian ambassador at court

The Persian ambassador was affronted when the King delayed receiving him at court. He was only pacified when he was assured that the King had been ill, and he was eventually received at court with great pomp and ceremony on 20 December 1809.

The Times recorded that:
The introduction of the Persian Ambassador attracted a greater concourse of spectators yesterday, to St James’s Park, than has been seen there for some years. The way from the Stable-yard to Buckingham House was quite thronged.1
On a later visit, he noted that a court official stood behind the King and announced each person’s name because the King’s eyesight was so weak.

The Queen received the ambassador on 17 January 1810 and he wrote at length about his experience at court. He was astounded at the extraordinary shape of the ladies’ court dresses which he described as being tightly fitted from waist to shoulders and then like full-blown tents from waist to toe. He also thought that the men’s clothes were immodest and unflattering, especially the trousers, which he thought were made to look like under-drawers.

The Times recorded that:
His Excellency was conducted by Mr Chester to the Drawing-room, and introduced to her Majesty by Earl Morton, with the same pomp and form as if her Majesty was holding a public drawing-room, all her Majesty’s state attendants being present. Her Majesty was accompanied by the Princesses, the Dukes of Kent, Cambridge and Brunswick. His Excellency delivered his credentials to her Majesty, and also the presents from his Court, consisting of three boxes of jewels, several choice shawls, and a curious carpet, which were most graciously received.2
A drawing room at St James's Palace from The Microcosm of London (1808-10)
A drawing room at St James's Palace
from The Microcosm of London (1808-10)
He wrote that he was told that young ladies were not presented to the Queen until they were 17 years of age and could not go out in society before that time.

He also recorded that if a man had an illegitimate daughter, she could not go to court until she was married; if he had an illegitimate son, this son could not inherit his name or title.

The Prince of Wales fetes the ambassador

On 24 January 1810, the ambassador was invited to wait on the Prince of Wales at Carlton House, and on 3 February, the Prince gave an entertainment in the ambassador’s honour. The ambassador wrote that the Prince asked him whether he preferred thin women or fat, and agreed with him when he answered fat. He also wrote how he had complained that all the English women were put off by his hairy face. He dined with the Prince of Wales and other royal princes on 27 February.

Crimson Drawing Room, Carlton House, from The History of the Royal Residences by WH Pyne (1819)
Crimson Drawing Room, Carlton House, from The History
of the Royal Residences by WH Pyne (1819)
The Persian ambassador’s observations

Leaving cards

The Persian ambassador was introduced to the custom of leaving cards. He recorded that when ministers or councillors called on him, they left a card about the size of the palm of your hand at his door. He was told he should return these calls, leaving cards with his name on at the homes of the gentlemen who had called on him.

Dinners, balls and other entertainments

One of the most fascinating sections in the ambassador’s journal is where he talks about the different types of gathering that were part of fashionable life in London. He wrote that invitation cards were given out with a date, time of arrival and time of departure on them.
• A dinner lasts for four hours, from 6 pm to 10 pm.
• A ball is a large gathering with musicians and lasts from 10 pm to 5 am in the morning.
• A musical entertainment lasts for four hours from 10 pm to 2 am. The guests are invited to come and hear a famous musician or singer and the host persuades them to perform although everyone knows they are being paid to do so.
• An assembly or rout lasts for six hours from 10 pm to 4 am and is simply a gathering. The ambassador thought this type of entertainment was completely pointless.
• A breakfast is a morning meal.

The ambassador thought that all parties should be held in the early hours of the morning as the calls of the nightwatchmen made it impossible to sleep.

On Friday 16 March, the Persian ambassador returned the hospitality of his London acquaintances by holding a grand entertainment for some 500 people. The guests started arriving at 9 pm and some stayed until 1 am although many left an hour earlier to attend the Countess of Clonmell’s ball in Portman Square.

Valentine’s Day

On 14 February, the ambassador recorded that the English called this Valentine’s Day and had a custom of sending anonymous letters and love poems to their sweethearts. He noted that elegant dandies also sent each other caricature drawings for fun.

Mrs Hope

The Persian ambassador recorded some very frank opinions in his journal. He thought that Mrs Hope, who before her marriage had been the Irish beauty Louisa Beresford, was very beautiful, and that it was awful that she should have married Thomas Hope for his money when he was so very ugly.

Louisa Beresford, Viscountess Beresford (earlier Mrs Hope) from The Court Magazine and Monthly Critic (1837)
Louisa Beresford, Viscountess Beresford (earlier Mrs Hope)
from The Court Magazine and Monthly Critic (1837)
Sir Francis Burdett and the London riots

The Persian ambassador was in London when Sir Francis Burdett refused to be arrested in April 1810 and riots broke out as his supporters resisted his arrest. The ambassador was astonished that it took several days to obtain a warrant to arrest Sir Francis. He said that in Iran, more than 2,000 people would have been executed by then.

Notes
(1) From The Times 21 December 1809, Times Digital Archive.
(2) From The Times 18 January 1810, Times Digital Archive.

Sources used include:
Ackermann, Rudolph and Combe, William, The Microcosm of London or London in miniature Volume 3 (Rudolph Ackermann 1808-1810, reprinted 1904)
Hassan Khan, Mirza Abul, A Persian at the Court of King George 1809-10, edited by Margaret Morris Cloake (1988)

Times Digital Archive

Tuesday, 28 November 2017

A Regency History guide to the Jane Austen Centre in Bath

Portrait and waxwork of Jane Austen  on display at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Portrait and waxwork of Jane Austen
on display at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
If you want to learn about Jane Austen, my favourite author and one of Bath’s most famous residents, the Jane Austen Centre is an excellent place to start.

I recently visited the centre to talk to their social media manager, Jenni Waugh, about my book, What Regency Women Did For Us, which features Jane Austen. You can find my interview on the Jane Austen website here: An interview with author Rachel Knowles.

For those of you who have never visited the Jane Austen Centre, here is my guide to what you might discover there.

Where is the Jane Austen Centre?

The Jane Austen Centre is at 40 Gay Street in Bath. It is situated in a Georgian townhouse much like the one Jane once lived in, just up the road at number 25.

Jane Austen Centre, 40 Gay Street, Bath
The Jane Austen Centre, 40 Gay Street, Bath
A Regency welcome

Visitors to the Jane Austen Centre are transported back 200 years as they are welcomed at the door by the much-photographed figure of Martin Salter, dressed in Regency costume. Within the centre, all the staff are in Regency costume – even the man operating the till.

Martin Salter ready to welcome visitors  to the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Martin Salter ready to welcome visitors
to the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Introducing Jane

The tour starts upstairs with an introductory talk about Jane Austen by one of the centre’s costumed guides, who each take on the persona of one of Jane Austen’s characters. Our talk was given most proficiently by ‘Georgiana Darcy’, who introduced her audience to Jane and the Austen family, and told the story of Jane’s life.

The exhibition

'Georgiana Darcy' talks about the  portrait of Jane Austen  drawn by her sister Cassandra
'Georgiana Darcy' talks about the
portrait of Jane Austen
drawn by her sister Cassandra
The main exhibition is on the ground floor, starting with a corridor of Jane Austen pictures which our guide talked about. Sadly, none were original, but the reproduction of Cassandra’s famous sketch of Jane Austen did have the advantage of being somewhat larger than the original, which is in the National Portrait Gallery in London.

Throughout the exhibition, there were display boards giving information about the houses in which Jane lived in Bath and other facts about her family, her loves, and the life she led.

Rachel at the exhibition at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Rachel at the exhibition at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
If you are a fan of the 1995 BBC adaptation of Pride and Prejudice, then you will recognise Adrian Lukis, the presenter of a short video detailing the places in Bath that Jane was associated with. Adrian played the charming but villainous George Wickham.

View through the window of the milliner's   shop at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
View through the window of the milliner's
shop at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
One of the most fascinating exhibits was a little shop, filled with items you might have found in a milliner’s shop in Georgian England, including glove stretchers and feathers.

Regency costumes on display at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Regency costumes on display at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
As well as displaying various Regency costumes, there was the chance to dress up. Visitors can choose from an array of Regency gowns, gloves, shawls and hats, and pose with the model of Mr Darcy.

Rachel in Regency costume posing with Mr Darcy  at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Rachel in Regency costume posing with Mr Darcy
at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Moving on, there was a chance to practise writing with pen and ink, and discover how hard it is to write without blotting ink all over your paper.

Rachel trying to write with a pen and ink at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Rachel trying to write with a pen and ink at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
The Jane Austen waxwork

Finally, the pinnacle of the exhibition – the life-size, waxwork figure of Jane Austen based on forensic artist Melissa Dring’s speculative portrait. I have wanted to see this waxwork, created by sculptor Mark Richards, whose clients include Madame Tussaud’s, ever since I first read about it.

Portrait and waxwork of Jane Austen  on display at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Portrait and waxwork of Jane Austen
on display at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
The most surprising thing for many people is the revelation that Jane was quite tall. As you will see from the photo of Jane and myself, she is by far the taller of the two. I believe Jane’s height was worked out from a pelisse she once owned, showing her to be around 5 feet 6 inches tall.

Rachel with the waxwork of Jane Austen  on display at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Rachel with the waxwork of Jane Austen
on display at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Alongside the statue is another piece of Jane Austen memorabilia: one of the five new polymer £5 notes depicting a miniature engraving of Jane’s face on it, together with a quote from one of her books. Artist Graham Short made the engravings, and he donated this £5 note to the Jane Austen Centre in Bath to go on display.

Souvenir shopping

After visiting the exhibition, you can browse the gift shop, where you can purchase all manner of items related to Jane Austen, many of which have Mr Darcy’s name or face on them. 

If you want a reminder of what you’ve learned at the centre, the souvenir guide is full of facts about Jane Austen’s residence in Bath, and includes a family tree and timeline, as well as a Regency tour of Bath.

Regency tearooms

Regency tearooms at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Regency tearooms at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
You can finish your tour where I started mine, right at the top of the house in the Regency tearooms, where Jenni Waugh interviewed me. Here you can sip tea, served by staff in Regency costume, while admiring the portrait of Mr Darcy, as depicted by Colin Firth in the BBC’s classic 1995 dramatization of Pride and Prejudice.

Rachel with Jenni Waugh and Mr Darcy in the Regency tearooms at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Rachel with Jenni Waugh and Mr Darcy
in the Regency tearooms at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Did I learn anything new?

Probably not, but don’t let that put you off. I knew a lot about Jane Austen before my visit as I wrote about her in What Regency Women Did For Us, and I would have found it quite disturbing if I had discovered a lot of new facts that I wish I had included!

Did I enjoy my visit?

Yes, I enjoyed my visit very much. It is always a pleasure to talk to other Jane Austen enthusiasts, and the costumed guides at the centre could probably have talked with me about Jane Austen all day.

What was the best part?

The highlight of my visit was undoubtedly seeing the Jane Austen waxwork.

Waxwork of Jane Austen  on display at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Waxwork of Jane Austen
on display at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
You can find out more about visiting the centre here: Visiting the Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Last visited October 2017.
All photos © Regencyhistory.net

Wednesday, 8 November 2017

A Regency History guide to the Monument, London

The Monument, London
The Monument, London
What is The Monument?

The Monument is … well … a monument. Specifically, it is a monument to the Great Fire of London of 1666 and the rebuilding of the city. It is a Doric-style stone pillar, 202 feet tall, situated 202 feet away from Pudding Lane where the Great Fire started.
 
The Monument, London
The Great Fire of London

The Great Fire of London raged from 2-5 September 1666. The fire started at the house of the king’s baker in Pudding Lane and the wind caused it to spread rapidly. While it raged, the fire destroyed thousands of houses and more than 80 churches, including St Paul’s Cathedral. Very few lives were lost, but a large area of the city was burnt down.

The Monument c1800 from Old and New London byW Thornbury (1873)
The Monument c1800 from
Old and New London by W Thornbury (1873)
A monument to the Great Fire

An Act of Parliament was passed for rebuilding the City of London and it decreed:
That a Columne or Pillar of Brase or Stone be erected on or as neere unto the place where the said Fire soe unhappily began as conveniently may be, in perpetuall Remembrance thereof.1
Sir Christopher Wren, Surveyor General to Charles II, designed the obligatory commemorative pillar in conjunction with his colleague, Dr Robert Hooke. Wren also designed many churches that were rebuilt after the fire, including, most famously, St Paul’s Cathedral. The existing design was agreed upon after plans for a pillar surmounted with a phoenix or a statue of the king were dismissed as too costly and unsuitable.

One of Wren's rejected designs for the top of the Monument from Old and New London byW Thornbury (1873)
One of Wren's rejected designs for the top
of the Monument from
Old and New London by W Thornbury (1873)
The resulting memorial was a Doric column made of Portland stone supporting a drum and a copper urn containing flames representing the Great Fire. It was built in 1671-7 on the site of St Margaret’s Church, off Fish Street Hill, the first church to be destroyed by the fire. Inside the Monument is a cantilevered stone staircase which leads to a viewing platform, 160 feet above street level.

The inscription on the north side of the pedestal states that the total height of the Monument of 202 feet is equal to the distance eastward to the house in Pudding Lane where the fire broke out.

In his history, Welch described the Monument as the ‘finest isolated stone column in the world.’2

The Monument, London
The Monument, London
A Georgian tourist attraction

Graffiti at the Monument, London
Graffiti at the Monument, London
Feltham’s Picture of London for 1810 described the Monument:
THE MONUMENT
About 20 yards north of London-bridge is situated the finest pillar in the world, erected by Sir Christopher Wren, in memory of the great fire, which, in 1666, broke out at a house on this spot, and destroyed the metropolis, from the Tower to Temple Bar.
It is a fluted column, of the Doric order: the total height of it is 202 feet; the diameter at the base 15 feet, and the height of the column 120 feet. The height of the massy pedestal is 40 feet, and the cone at the top, with its urn, is 42 feet. Within the column is a flight of 345 steps, and from the iron balcony at top is a most fascinating prospect of the metropolis, and the adjacent country. The admittance to the top is sixpence. It is impossible not to lament the obscure situation of this beautiful monument, which in a proper place would form one of the most striking objects of the kind that architecture is capable of producing.3
The Monument 1809 from History of the Monument by C Welch (1893)
The Monument 1809 from History
of the Monument
by C Welch (1893)
The Original Picture of London (1829) went into more detail, adding:
The column occupies the spot where formerly stood the parish church of St Margaret. It was begun in 1671, and completed in 1677. On the north and south sides of the pedestal are inscriptions in English and Latin, descriptive of the conflagration which consumed the city, and of its subsequent restoration. On the west side is an emblematical group of sculpture in alto and basso relievo executed by Caius Gabriel Cibber, representing Time raising London, (which is personified by a female figure, reclining on the ruins of the city,) under the fostering patronage of Charles II and his brother, the Duke of York, who are attended by three females representing Imagination, Ichnographia, and Liberty. Below the king is Envy, blowing flames from her mouth, and behind him, Mars and Fortitude. In the background, on the left, is the city in flames, and on the right, are labourers erecting new buildings. A short inscription in English goes round the pedestal, ascribing the conflagration to the treachery and malice of a popish faction. This immense column, which far exceeds in altitude the celebrated pillars of Trajan and Antoninus at Rome, contains upwards of 28,000 feet of solid Portland stone.4

Detail of Cibber's sculpture on the Monument from History of the Monument by C Welch (1893)
Detail of Cibber's sculpture on the Monument
from History of the Monument by C Welch (1893)
The Monument, London
The anti-Catholic inscription

The short inscription blaming the Catholics for starting the Great Fire of London was added in 1681 as a result of the anti-Catholic feeling engendered by Titus Oates and the Popish Plot.

The Picture of London for 1810 dismissed this as ridiculous:
No rational being can entertain the notion, that the catholics, or any religious sect, could wilfully have perpetrated so horrible a deed as this pillar was intended to impute to them, nor can so much credit be given to human foresight, as for it to be concluded that a fire, which broke out in a single house, could upon this, rather than upon other occasions, have extended its ravages in so extraordinary a manner.5
Crosby’s guide agreed:
The inscription on the pedestal, imputing the calamity to the Papists, is now universally considered as unjust.6
The objectional lines were removed by order of the Court of Common Council dated 6 December 1830.

How many steps?

The Monument staircase from above from History of the Monument by C Welch (1893)
The Monument staircase from above
from History of the Monument by C Welch (1893)
The staircase from above at the Monument, London
The Monument staircase from above
When I visited the Monument in August 2017, the certificate I was given for completing the ascent stated that I had climbed the 311 steps up to the platform. However, in Old and New London, Wren’s son is quoted as reporting 345 steps:
Within is a large staircase of black marble, containing 345 steps 10½ inches broad and 6 inches risers.7
The Georgian guidebooks and Welch’s History of the Monument concur that there were 345 steps. I am perplexed as to what has happened to the other 34 steps. Has the staircase been rebuilt at some stage? Is the viewing platform lower now than it once was? I have been unable to find anything that explains why the number varies so greatly. Can anyone solve the mystery for me?

The Monument staircase from below from History of the Monument by C Welch (1893)
The Monument staircase from below
from History of the Monument by C Welch (1893)
The staircase from below at the Monument, London
The Monument staircase from below
A scientific laboratory

Old and New London wrote that the Monument
… was at first used by the members of the Royal Society for astronomical purposes, but was abandoned on account of its vibration being too great for the nicety required in their observations.8
A daring descent

The Original Picture of London (1829) wrote:
In September 1732, a sailor slid down a rope stretched from the gallery of the Monument to the Three Tuns Tavern in Gracechurch Street; and on the following day, a waterman's boy descended by the same rope into the street.9
The Monument c1720 from History of the Monument by C Welch (1893)
The Monument c1720 from
History of the Monument by C Welch (1893)
Lighting up the Monument

Old and New London wrote:
On June 15, 1825, the Monument was illuminated with portable gas, in commemoration of laying the first stone of New London Bridge. A lamp was placed at each of the loop-holes of the column, to give the idea of its being wreathed with flame; whilst two other series were placed on the edges of the gallery, to which the public were admitted during the evening.10
Fish Street Hill from the Monument from History of the Monument by C Welch (1893)
Fish Street Hill from the Monument from
History of the Monument by C Welch (1893)
Signal tower

On 18 November 1852, four artillery men of the Royal Artillery were stationed on the Monument in order to pass signals from St Paul’s Cathedral to the Tower on the occasion of the funeral of the Duke of Wellington.

The introduction of the cage

In 1750, a dreadful accident occurred. A weaver named William Green leaned too far over the railings of the balcony to look at an eagle which was kept in a cage there and fell over the edge to his death.

During the years 1788 to 1842, six people committed suicide from the Monument, including Lyon Levi, a Jewish diamond merchant, on 18 January 1810. To prevent further tragedy, the building was temporarily closed in August 1842, and before it reopened, the gallery was enclosed with an iron cage.

The balcony or cage from History of the Monument by C Welch (1893)
The balcony or cage from
History of the Monument by C Welch (1893)
Renovations and restorations

The Monument has been renovated approximately every 100 years with the latest comprehensive restoration programme taking place in 2007-9. The stonework was cleaned and repaired, the urn re-gilded and a new gallery cage installed.

The Monument, London
The Monument today

The Monument is open to visitors all year round except 24-26 December. You may have to wait for entry at busy times as a maximum of 33 people are allowed inside at one time. It is also highly unlikely that you will beat the time of a lad who ran up the Monument and down again in 2 minutes 32 seconds in 1732, for a wager. The stairs can get quite busy with people going up and down and you need to be prepared to stop regularly to allow people to pass. However, this does give you a chance for a breather as you make the long climb. If you succeed in climbing the 311 steps, you will be rewarded with fine views of London from the balcony.

View from the Monument, London (2017)
View from the Monument, London (2017)
View from the Monument, London (2017)
View from the Monument, London (2017)
Visited August 2017.

Notes
(1) From Welch, Charles, History of The Monument with some account of the great fire of London, which it commemorates (1893).
(2) From Welch, Charles, History of The Monument with some account of the great fire of London, which it commemorates (1893).
(3) From Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1810 (1810).
(4) From Feltham, John, The Original Picture of London 26th edition (1829).
(5) From Feltham, John, The Original Picture of London 26th edition (1829).
(6) From Crosby, B, A View of London; or the Stranger's Guide through the British Metropolis (Printed for B Crosby, London, 1803-4).
(7) From Thornbury, Walter, Old and New London: A narrative of its history, its people, and its places (Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1873, London) Vol 1.
(8) From Thornbury, Walter, Old and New London: A narrative of its history, its people, and its places (Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1873, London) Vol 1.
(9) From Feltham, John, The Original Picture of London 26th edition (1829).
(10) From Thornbury, Walter, Old and New London: A narrative of its history, its people, and its places (Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1873, London) Vol 1.

Sources used include:
Crosby, B, A View of London; or the Stranger's Guide through the British Metropolis (Printed for B Crosby, London, 1803-4)
Feltham, John, The Original Picture of London 26th edition (1829)
Feltham, John, The Picture of London for 1810 (1810)
Thornbury, Walter, Old and New London: A narrative of its history, its people, and its places (Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1873, London) Vol 1
Welch, Charles, History of The Monument with some account of the great fire of London, which it commemorates (1893)


All photographs © RegencyHistory.net