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Tuesday, 30 November 2021

How to inherit a dukedom

A duke from A book explaining the ranks and dignitaries of British Society (1809)
A duke from A book explaining
the ranks and dignitaries of British Society
by C Lamb
(1809)
Who inherits a peerage?

There are five ranks of the British peerage: duke, marquess, earl, viscount and baron.

These are all hereditary titles and, with a few exceptions, pass down from father to son in the male line.1

How do you inherit a dukedom?

To inherit a dukedom, you would need:

  1. To be a direct male descendant of a previous holder of the title.
  2. For all those with a greater claim to the title (if any) to have already died.

Normally, the dukedom would descend to the duke’s eldest son. But if he has already died, the dukedom would pass to the eldest son’s eldest son.

But what if both son and grandson have died or the duke has no sons?

The order of succession

You continue down the order of succession until you find a direct male descendant who is alive. The order of succession would look something like this:

  1. Duke’s eldest son and his direct male descendants, eldest first
  2. Duke’s 2nd son and his direct male descendants, eldest first
  3. Duke’s 3rd son etc
  4. If the Duke’s father held the title before him

  5. Duke’s next eldest brother and his direct male descendants, eldest first
  6. Duke’s next eldest brother etc
  7. If the duke’s grandfather held the title before him

  8. Duke’s father’s next eldest brother and his direct male descendants, eldest first

If there are no direct male descendants of a previous holder of the title, then the dukedom would normally become extinct.2

If, say, the current duke had been granted the dukedom and his father was only an earl, then his brothers could only inherit the earldom, not the dukedom, as they are not direct male descendants of a previous holder of the title.

Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford (1765-1802) Died unmarried and was succeeded by his brother, John from The Life of George Brummell by W Jesse (1886 edition)
Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford (1765-1802)
Died unmarried and was succeeded by his brother, John
from The Life of George Brummell by W Jesse (1886 edition)
What title, if any, does the heir hold before he inherits?

If the heir is the son of the current duke, then he usually takes the next highest title of the duke as a courtesy title before he inherits. The eldest son is known as the heir apparent as he is the highest in the succession order above, and will definitely inherit if he is still alive at the time of his father’s death.

In the same way, if the eldest son has died, his eldest son would be heir apparent and take his father’s courtesy title.

You can read more about the use of titles here.

If there is the possibility that another male could be born who would push the heir down the succession order, he is known as the heir presumptive.

Only direct descendants of the current duke can take a courtesy title.

What title, if any, do the relatives of the new duke use?

If the heir is a direct descendant of the current duke, then his mother and siblings will already have titles as the wife and children of the duke.

But if the heir is lower down the line of succession, then his mother and siblings may not have any title at all.

Typically, the siblings of the new duke will be awarded the rank and title of children of a duke by a royal warrant of precedence.

However, this does not usually apply to the duke’s mother who retains her previous rank.

The Dukes of Devonshire

I think it’s easier to explain using a real-life example, so we’ll look at the Dukes of Devonshire. The only problem with this example is that there are a lot of Williams!

William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire, after Thomas Hudson Hardwick Hall © National Trust via WikiMedi Commons
William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire,
after Thomas Hudson
Hardwick Hall © National Trust
via WikiMedi Commons
Let’s start with William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire (1720­–1764) who I’ll refer to as William 4. He had three sons:

William (1748–1811)(William 5)

Lord Richard (1752–1781)

Lord George (1754–1834) – made 1st Earl of Burlington in 1831.

On the death of William 4 in 1764, he was succeeded by his eldest son William 5 who became the 5th Duke of Devonshire. William 5 only had one son:

(Yet another) William (1790–1858), (William 6) who became the 6th Duke on his father’s death.

William Spencer Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire - on Oak Stairs at Chatsworth Photo © A Knowles (2014)
William Spencer Cavendish, 6th Duke of
Devonshire - on Oak Stairs at Chatsworth
Photo © A Knowles (2014)
William 6 was known as the Bachelor Duke because he never married. You can read more about him here. 

When William 6 died, the title would have passed to his next oldest brother, but as he didn’t have any brothers, we have to go back another generation to the next oldest son of William 4.

However, Lord Richard had already died unmarried in 1781, so we have to go to William 4’s third son, Lord George. By the time William 6 died in 1858, George had already died, but George had married and had sons. The eldest of these was another William Cavendish (1783–1812).

As you can see from his dates, he had already died as well. But he had married, and his eldest son was also William Cavendish (1808–1891) (William 7) who became the 7th Duke of Devonshire.

William 7 already had a title – he had become the 2nd Earl of Burlington on his grandfather’s death in 1834.

If a person has already died, they cannot inherit a title posthumously. So, William 7’s father was never an earl or a duke and is always referred to as William Cavendish.

However, when a man inherits a title that his father would have inherited had he still been alive, his siblings may be granted the precedence as if he had inherited, by Royal Warrant. As Black points out, though, this is not a right but by favour of the Crown.3

So, when William 7 became Earl of Burlington in 1834, his brothers were granted the precedence of younger sons of an earl, and his sister, the precedence of a daughter of an earl.

In the same way, when William 7 became Duke of Devonshire in 1858, his brothers were granted the precedence of younger sons of a duke, and his sister, the precedence of a daughter of a duke.

His mother, however, who was still alive at the time, did not inherit the title of dowager countess or dowager duchess.4

Headshot of Rachel Knowles author with sea in background(2021)
Rachel Knowles writes clean/Christian historical romance set in the time of Jane Austen. She has been sharing her research on this blog since 2011. Rachel lives in the beautiful Georgian seaside town of Weymouth, Dorset, on the south coast of England, with her husband, Andrew.

Find out more about Rachel's books and sign up for her newsletter here.

If you have enjoyed this blog and want to encourage me and help me to keep making my research freely available, please buy me a virtual cup of coffee by clicking the button below.

 

Notes

  1. Some ladies hold a title in their own right. These titles, mostly baronies and a few earldoms, descend in the female line.
  2. Sometimes, a peer was given royal permission for his title to be inherited differently, eg an Act of Parliament gave John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (1650–1722), the right for his title to descend to his daughter Henrietta and then to his second daughter’s son.
  3. Black, Adam and Charles, Titles and forms of address - a guide to their correct use (9th edition)(1955).
  4. There is a long list of Royal Warrants of Precedence on Wikipedia, and this list doesn’t include any 19th century cases of precedence being granted to widows of peers. You can find the list here. The entries are all referenced with announcements in the Gazette.
Sources used include:
Black, Adam and Charles, Titles and forms of address - a guide to their correct use (9th edition)(1955)
Courthope, William, editor, Debrett's Complete Peerage of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1838)
Lamb, Charles, A book explaining the ranks and dignities of British Society (1809)

Wednesday, 10 November 2021

Book review: Behind the Light of Golowduyn by Deborah M Hathaway

Wooden plate with shells on and front cover of Behind the Light of Golowduyn by Deborah M Hathaway

A thrilling tale of rescue and romance

The scenario

A restless captain looking for purpose. A lonely woman fighting to keep the only home she’s ever known – the lighthouse of Golowduyn. When Abigail Moore rescues Captain Gavin Kendricks from his sinking ship, she little realises that he’s about to rescue her back.

What I liked

I was captivated by this gripping story from the first chapter. Living on the south coast of England, I am well aware of how treacherous parts of the coast can be, and I thought Hathaway painted the rugged Cornish scene beautifully.

As always, I appreciated being given a specific date – 1815 – when the novel is set. 

I don’t know much about lighthouses and how Trinity House operated in the 1800s, but Hathaway has clearly done loads of research into this, and the details certainly convinced me. And having climbed to the top of our lighthouse in Weymouth, the effort required to mount the steps is no exaggeration.

I thought it was a great idea to include a pronunciation guide for the Cornish names. It sounded genuine so I was surprised to look up the names to discover that, as far as I could tell, neither Golowduyn nor the Dulatha Cliffs were real places! 

Front cover of Behind the Light of Golowduyn by Deborah M Hathaway with sea and cliffs and quote

Postal deliveries

One of the key threads in the story is based on the lighthouse’s contract with Trinity House. An important letter arrives from Trinity House, prepaid and delivered to the door by a postman on horseback. This got me thinking about the postal service to a remote place like Cornwall.

Letters travelling by post were delivered for free if they were franked by a member of parliament – that is, the name and address were inscribed by him. The delivery of other letters was paid for by the recipient. I haven’t been able to find a reference that suggests there was any other way for a letter to be prepaid at this date.

But were the letters delivered to the door?

In Jane Austen’s Emma, Jane Fairfax is scolded for going out to the post office in the rain. Mrs Elton declares:

The man who fetches our letters every morning (one of our men, I forget his name) shall inquire for yours too and bring them to you.1

This would imply that people made their own arrangements to fetch letters from the post office.

In Pride and Prejudice, letters were delivered to Mr Bennet’s house:

Every day at Longbourn was now a day of anxiety; but the most anxious part of each was when the post was expected. The arrival of letters was the grand object of every morning’s impatience.2

I think, perhaps, that the letter from Trinity House is more akin to the letter received by Mr Bennet from Colonel Forster, telling him of Lydia’s elopement:

An express came at twelve last night, just as we were all gone to bed, from Colonel Forster, to inform us that she was gone off to Scotland with one of his officers; to own the truth, with Wickham!3

Word use

One term that confused me a little was the use of the word ‘living’. Hathaway referred to Abigail’s uncle using his living to fund the building of the lighthouse. I am used to hearing of a rector’s means of income being referred to as a living, but not anyone else’s. I assume this term was referring to his income from other means and not suggesting that he was a rector.

Clean and sweet?

Heat level low. Some references to prayer. A bit more gritty than your normal Regency romance with moderate trauma/violence/accident including death and references to capital punishment.

A compelling read – 5 stars

Headshot of Rachel Knowles author with sea in background(2021)
Rachel Knowles writes clean/Christian historical romance set in the time of Jane Austen. She has been sharing her research on this blog since 2011. Rachel lives in the beautiful Georgian seaside town of Weymouth, Dorset, on the south coast of England, with her husband, Andrew.

Find out more about Rachel's books and sign up for her newsletter here.

If you have enjoyed this blog and want to encourage me and help me to keep making my research freely available, please buy me a virtual cup of coffee by clicking the button below.

 

Notes

  1. Austen, Jane, Emma (1815, London).
  2. Austen, Jane, Pride and Prejudice (1813, London).
  3. Ibid.