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Tuesday, 30 November 2021

How to inherit a dukedom

A duke from A book explaining the ranks and dignitaries of British Society (1809)
A duke from A book explaining
the ranks and dignitaries of British Society
by C Lamb
(1809)
Who inherits a peerage?

There are five ranks of the British peerage: duke, marquess, earl, viscount and baron.

These are all hereditary titles and, with a few exceptions, pass down from father to son in the male line.1

How do you inherit a dukedom?

To inherit a dukedom, you would need:

  1. To be a direct male descendant of a previous holder of the title.
  2. For all those with a greater claim to the title (if any) to have already died.

Normally, the dukedom would descend to the duke’s eldest son. But if he has already died, the dukedom would pass to the eldest son’s eldest son.

But what if both son and grandson have died or the duke has no sons?

The order of succession

You continue down the order of succession until you find a direct male descendant who is alive. The order of succession would look something like this:

  1. Duke’s eldest son and his direct male descendants, eldest first
  2. Duke’s 2nd son and his direct male descendants, eldest first
  3. Duke’s 3rd son etc
  4. If the Duke’s father held the title before him

  5. Duke’s next eldest brother and his direct male descendants, eldest first
  6. Duke’s next eldest brother etc
  7. If the duke’s grandfather held the title before him

  8. Duke’s father’s next eldest brother and his direct male descendants, eldest first

If there are no direct male descendants of a previous holder of the title, then the dukedom would normally become extinct.2

If, say, the current duke had been granted the dukedom and his father was only an earl, then his brothers could only inherit the earldom, not the dukedom, as they are not direct male descendants of a previous holder of the title.

Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford (1765-1802) Died unmarried and was succeeded by his brother, John from The Life of George Brummell by W Jesse (1886 edition)
Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford (1765-1802)
Died unmarried and was succeeded by his brother, John
from The Life of George Brummell by W Jesse (1886 edition)
What title, if any, does the heir hold before he inherits?

If the heir is the son of the current duke, then he usually takes the next highest title of the duke as a courtesy title before he inherits. The eldest son is known as the heir apparent as he is the highest in the succession order above, and will definitely inherit if he is still alive at the time of his father’s death.

In the same way, if the eldest son has died, his eldest son would be heir apparent and take his father’s courtesy title.

You can read more about the use of titles here.

If there is the possibility that another male could be born who would push the heir down the succession order, he is known as the heir presumptive.

Only direct descendants of the current duke can take a courtesy title.

What title, if any, do the relatives of the new duke use?

If the heir is a direct descendant of the current duke, then his mother and siblings will already have titles as the wife and children of the duke.

But if the heir is lower down the line of succession, then his mother and siblings may not have any title at all.

Typically, the siblings of the new duke will be awarded the rank and title of children of a duke by a royal warrant of precedence.

However, this does not usually apply to the duke’s mother who retains her previous rank.

The Dukes of Devonshire

I think it’s easier to explain using a real-life example, so we’ll look at the Dukes of Devonshire. The only problem with this example is that there are a lot of Williams!

William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire, after Thomas Hudson Hardwick Hall © National Trust via WikiMedi Commons
William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire,
after Thomas Hudson
Hardwick Hall © National Trust
via WikiMedi Commons
Let’s start with William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire (1720­–1764) who I’ll refer to as William 4. He had three sons:

William (1748–1811)(William 5)

Lord Richard (1752–1781)

Lord George (1754–1834) – made 1st Earl of Burlington in 1831.

On the death of William 4 in 1764, he was succeeded by his eldest son William 5 who became the 5th Duke of Devonshire. William 5 only had one son:

(Yet another) William (1790–1858), (William 6) who became the 6th Duke on his father’s death.

William Spencer Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire - on Oak Stairs at Chatsworth Photo © A Knowles (2014)
William Spencer Cavendish, 6th Duke of
Devonshire - on Oak Stairs at Chatsworth
Photo © A Knowles (2014)
William 6 was known as the Bachelor Duke because he never married. You can read more about him here. 

When William 6 died, the title would have passed to his next oldest brother, but as he didn’t have any brothers, we have to go back another generation to the next oldest son of William 4.

However, Lord Richard had already died unmarried in 1781, so we have to go to William 4’s third son, Lord George. By the time William 6 died in 1858, George had already died, but George had married and had sons. The eldest of these was another William Cavendish (1783–1812).

As you can see from his dates, he had already died as well. But he had married, and his eldest son was also William Cavendish (1808–1891) (William 7) who became the 7th Duke of Devonshire.

William 7 already had a title – he had become the 2nd Earl of Burlington on his grandfather’s death in 1834.

If a person has already died, they cannot inherit a title posthumously. So, William 7’s father was never an earl or a duke and is always referred to as William Cavendish.

However, when a man inherits a title that his father would have inherited had he still been alive, his siblings may be granted the precedence as if he had inherited, by Royal Warrant. As Black points out, though, this is not a right but by favour of the Crown.3

So, when William 7 became Earl of Burlington in 1834, his brothers were granted the precedence of younger sons of an earl, and his sister, the precedence of a daughter of an earl.

In the same way, when William 7 became Duke of Devonshire in 1858, his brothers were granted the precedence of younger sons of a duke, and his sister, the precedence of a daughter of a duke.

His mother, however, who was still alive at the time, did not inherit the title of dowager countess or dowager duchess.4

Headshot of Rachel Knowles author with sea in background(2021)
Rachel Knowles writes clean/Christian historical romance set in the time of Jane Austen. She has been sharing her research on this blog since 2011. Rachel lives in the beautiful Georgian seaside town of Weymouth, Dorset, on the south coast of England, with her husband, Andrew.

Find out more about Rachel's books and sign up for her newsletter here.

If you have enjoyed this blog and want to encourage me and help me to keep making my research freely available, please buy me a virtual cup of coffee by clicking the button below.

 

Notes

  1. Some ladies hold a title in their own right. These titles, mostly baronies and a few earldoms, descend in the female line.
  2. Sometimes, a peer was given royal permission for his title to be inherited differently, eg an Act of Parliament gave John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (1650–1722), the right for his title to descend to his daughter Henrietta and then to his second daughter’s son.
  3. Black, Adam and Charles, Titles and forms of address - a guide to their correct use (9th edition)(1955).
  4. There is a long list of Royal Warrants of Precedence on Wikipedia, and this list doesn’t include any 19th century cases of precedence being granted to widows of peers. You can find the list here. The entries are all referenced with announcements in the Gazette.
Sources used include:
Black, Adam and Charles, Titles and forms of address - a guide to their correct use (9th edition)(1955)
Courthope, William, editor, Debrett's Complete Peerage of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1838)
Lamb, Charles, A book explaining the ranks and dignities of British Society (1809)

Wednesday, 10 November 2021

Book review: Behind the Light of Golowduyn by Deborah M Hathaway

Wooden plate with shells on and front cover of Behind the Light of Golowduyn by Deborah M Hathaway

A thrilling tale of rescue and romance

The scenario

A restless captain looking for purpose. A lonely woman fighting to keep the only home she’s ever known – the lighthouse of Golowduyn. When Abigail Moore rescues Captain Gavin Kendricks from his sinking ship, she little realises that he’s about to rescue her back.

What I liked

I was captivated by this gripping story from the first chapter. Living on the south coast of England, I am well aware of how treacherous parts of the coast can be, and I thought Hathaway painted the rugged Cornish scene beautifully.

As always, I appreciated being given a specific date – 1815 – when the novel is set. 

I don’t know much about lighthouses and how Trinity House operated in the 1800s, but Hathaway has clearly done loads of research into this, and the details certainly convinced me. And having climbed to the top of our lighthouse in Weymouth, the effort required to mount the steps is no exaggeration.

I thought it was a great idea to include a pronunciation guide for the Cornish names. It sounded genuine so I was surprised to look up the names to discover that, as far as I could tell, neither Golowduyn nor the Dulatha Cliffs were real places! 

Front cover of Behind the Light of Golowduyn by Deborah M Hathaway with sea and cliffs and quote

Postal deliveries

One of the key threads in the story is based on the lighthouse’s contract with Trinity House. An important letter arrives from Trinity House, prepaid and delivered to the door by a postman on horseback. This got me thinking about the postal service to a remote place like Cornwall.

Letters travelling by post were delivered for free if they were franked by a member of parliament – that is, the name and address were inscribed by him. The delivery of other letters was paid for by the recipient. I haven’t been able to find a reference that suggests there was any other way for a letter to be prepaid at this date.

But were the letters delivered to the door?

In Jane Austen’s Emma, Jane Fairfax is scolded for going out to the post office in the rain. Mrs Elton declares:

The man who fetches our letters every morning (one of our men, I forget his name) shall inquire for yours too and bring them to you.1

This would imply that people made their own arrangements to fetch letters from the post office.

In Pride and Prejudice, letters were delivered to Mr Bennet’s house:

Every day at Longbourn was now a day of anxiety; but the most anxious part of each was when the post was expected. The arrival of letters was the grand object of every morning’s impatience.2

I think, perhaps, that the letter from Trinity House is more akin to the letter received by Mr Bennet from Colonel Forster, telling him of Lydia’s elopement:

An express came at twelve last night, just as we were all gone to bed, from Colonel Forster, to inform us that she was gone off to Scotland with one of his officers; to own the truth, with Wickham!3

Word use

One term that confused me a little was the use of the word ‘living’. Hathaway referred to Abigail’s uncle using his living to fund the building of the lighthouse. I am used to hearing of a rector’s means of income being referred to as a living, but not anyone else’s. I assume this term was referring to his income from other means and not suggesting that he was a rector.

Clean and sweet?

Heat level low. Some references to prayer. A bit more gritty than your normal Regency romance with moderate trauma/violence/accident including death and references to capital punishment.

A compelling read – 5 stars

Headshot of Rachel Knowles author with sea in background(2021)
Rachel Knowles writes clean/Christian historical romance set in the time of Jane Austen. She has been sharing her research on this blog since 2011. Rachel lives in the beautiful Georgian seaside town of Weymouth, Dorset, on the south coast of England, with her husband, Andrew.

Find out more about Rachel's books and sign up for her newsletter here.

If you have enjoyed this blog and want to encourage me and help me to keep making my research freely available, please buy me a virtual cup of coffee by clicking the button below.

 

Notes

  1. Austen, Jane, Emma (1815, London).
  2. Austen, Jane, Pride and Prejudice (1813, London).
  3. Ibid.

Wednesday, 27 October 2021

Drawing room presentations - a Regency History guide

A drawing room at St James's Palace from The Microcosm of London by R Ackermann and W Combe (1808-10)
A drawing room at St James's Palace from
The Microcosm of London by R Ackermann and W Combe (1808-10)
In A Reason for Romance, Georgiana Merry and her sister Eliza are presented to the Queen by their grandmother, the Duchess of Wessex, on entering London society:

Just after two o’clock, the centre door was thrown open and Her Majesty Queen Charlotte entered, followed by the princesses and a whole bevy of servants. Although the Queen looked magnificent in dark green velvet and gold embroidery, Castleford could not help thinking, with an inner chuckle, that the Duchess of Wessex looked more regal.1

Was it just young ladies who were presented?

A common misconception is that only young ladies coming out into society for the first time were presented to the Queen. Both men and women were presented at court, at different times, for different reasons.

Lamb wrote in A book explaining the ranks and dignities of British Society (1809):

People are presented on different occasions: on first coming into the world, (which young ladies usually do about seventeen or eighteen); on their marriage, or any change of name; on going abroad, or to Ireland; or to an appointment to any situation about their majesties or the royal family.

Gentlemen are also presented on obtaining a commission in the army; promotion in the army or navy; a place under government; or any high situation in the church or law.2

A newspaper report of the Queen’s Drawing room held on 8 March 1810 stated:

Yesterday her Majesty held a Drawing-room, at which the following were presented:

Lady George Beresford, by the Countess of Arran.

Miss Harriet Thornton, by her mother, Mrs S Thornton.

Lady Charlotte Graham, by her mother, the Duchess of Montrose.

Mr Roust Broughton, on his coming of age, by his father.

Lady Mary Sackville, by her mother, the Duchess of Dorset.

The two Misses Wellesley Pole, by their mother, Mrs W Pole.

Mr Villiers, upon his return from Portugal.

Mr Yorke, upon his being appointed a Teller of the Exchequer.

Major-General Sir Stapleton Cotton, on his return from Portugal, and on coming to his title.3

Presentation of gentlemen

George III from The Public & Domestic Life of his late, most gracious majesty E Holt 1820
George III from The Public & Domestic Life
of his late, most gracious majesty
by
E Holt (1820)
Lamb wrote:

Gentlemen are all presented first to his majesty at the levee, and to her majesty at the following drawing room: they are generally presented by their nearest relation, who gives a card with their name, and the occasion of their being presented written upon it, to the lord of the bed-chamber in waiting. He names them to the king when they get up to him in the circle, on which they kneel down on one knee and kiss his hand.

To her majesty, the ceremony for gentlemen is the same, only that the card is given to her lord chamberlain.4

Presentation of ladies

Lamb wrote:

Ladies were presented to the king at the same drawing-room, but before they were presented to her majesty; but since the king has gone so much seldomer to court, they have been presented first to the queen at a common drawing-room, and to the king at the birth-day following; and those invited by her majesty to the entertainments at Windsor, have been presented to his majesty there: in that case, they are not in court dresses, but the ceremony is the same. On their being named to the king, by the lord of the bed-chamber, they make a low courtesy, and he salutes them; but their right-hand glove should be off, as if they intended to take his hand to kiss.

To her majesty, the ceremony of presentation for ladies is different according to their rank: all under the rank of right honourable kiss the queen’s hand, making so low a courtesy as to have almost the appearance of kneeling; she salutes those who have that rank, though they equally have their glove off.5

What did gentlemen wear to court?

Gentleman in court dress from A book explaining the ranks and dignities of British Society by C Lamb (1809)
Gentleman in court dress from
A book explaining the ranks and dignities
of British Society
by C Lamb (1809)
According to Lamb:

The court dress for gentlemen is what is commonly called a full dressed coat, without collar or lappels, made of silk, velvet, or cloth, and often richly embroidered in gold, silver, or coloured silks. Any naval or military uniform is reckoned a full dress, though many regimentals have, properly speaking, no full dressed uniform; those that have, cannot appear at court in the undressed uniform.

People are allowed to go to court in private mourning, except on the birth-days. Their uniforms, with a piece of black crape tied round the arm, are reckoned sufficient for officers in the deepest mourning.

Gentlemen not in uniform, wear what are called weepers in deep mourning, which are merely cambric cuffs, with broad hems turned back upon the sleeves.6

What did ladies wear to court?

Gentleman in court dress from A book explaining the ranks and dignities of British Society by C Lamb (1809)
Lady in court dress from
A book explaining the ranks and dignities
of British Society
by C Lamb (1809)

The court-dress for ladies is now distinguished only by the hoop, lappets, and full ruffles; for the mantua is now made exactly like any other open gown, and differently in shape before, according to the fashion of the year: the petticoat also is plain or trimmed, according to the fancy of the wearer. The most general form is the one followed in the plate; of late, it has been more the fashion to have the petticoat, both the drapery and the under part, of the same colour as the gown; but a coloured drapery over a white petticoat prevailed for many years, and the drapery was even often of a different colour from the gown. Velvet, sattin, silk, crape, and gause, are the only materials allowed for ladies’ court dresses; the lappets are sometimes of black lace, but oftener the same as the ruffles of fine lace or blonde. Court dresses are trimmed, and often embroidered with gold and silver; and artificial flowers are much used in ornamenting the petticoat. Feathers are not reckoned a necessary part of a court dress; but young ladies very seldom go without them, and they are supposed to be under dressed if they do.

In deep mourning, ladies wear a black hood, put on as it is represented in the plate.

Court mournings are worn by every body, according to the degree of relationship in which the person mourned for stood to his majesty.7

La Belle Assemblée recorded the dresses worn by two young ladies being presented at the Queen’s birthday drawing room in January 1810:

Two Miss Ruffos – Presented by their mother, the Princess Castelcicala, wore white crape dresses, elegantly trimmed with white satin ribbon and bunches of pink roses; robes, white satin, trimmed to correspond with the dresses.8

Lots of others are described in the same report. I thought the Duchess Dowager of Leeds’s outfit sounded particularly impressive:

A superb petticoat of white crape richly embroidered in real silver, with a border embroidered on crimson velvet, in a style perfectly unique, and beautiful, draperies richly embroidered and tastefully festooned with bunches of silver laurel and brilliant tassels; body and train of crimson velvet trimmed with silver point; head-dress, Caledonian cap of crimson velvet, diamonds, and ostrich feathers.9

What happens at a drawing room?

Queen Charlotte from The Historical and Posthumous Memoirs of Sir Nathaniel Wraxall (1884)
Queen Charlotte
from The Historical and Posthumous Memoirs
of Sir Nathaniel Wraxall (1884)

The drawing-room generally begins about two o’clock, when their majesties come in; the king first, preceded and followed by his attendants; and the queen, led by her lord chamberlain, (or vice-chamberlain in his absence); her train led by a page of honour, and followed by the princesses, each led by one of her majesties gentleman ushers, or equerries: the ladies of the bed-chamber in waiting to the queen and princesses follow; then the maids of honour; and last, the bed-chamber woman in waiting on the queen. On birth-days, the mistress of the robes, all the ladies of the bed-chamber, and the bed-chamber women, follow in the train, those in waiting going first; the mistress of the robes usually takes her waiting on the birth-days, as the groom of the stole does his upon his majesty.

At the entrance of the drawing-room, the page resigns the queen’s train to the lady of the bed-chamber, who hangs it over her arm, and keeps it there during the whole of the drawing-room; of course, she must then follow before the princesses.

The queen courteseys to the king on entering the drawing room, which she then goes round to the left, while he is doing so to the right; and their majesties speak to every person as they get up to them. The page, gentleman usher, and bed-chamber women, do not follow the queen into the inner drawing-room, nor the ladies of the bed-chamber not in waiting; and the maids of honour do not go round it with her, but stand altogether at one end till the drawing-room is over, when they follow her out, and fall into the train in their places in the outward drawing-room. Their majesties come and go through the levee-rooms.

Since there have been drawing-rooms so much seldomer, (only on every other Thursday) and that, of course, they have been more crouded, their majesties, instead of going round the room, have stood each with their back to a table between the windows, and the company have gone up to them. Any of the royal family coming to court, go in at the middle door, the company at one of the two side doors; and since their majesties have stood still, they should go in at the door next the windows, and out at the other.10

This seems to agree with the account of the Queen’s birthday drawing room on Thursday 18 January 1810 as reported in the Gentleman’s Magazine:

This day being appointed for keeping the birthday of her Majesty, soon after nine, their Majesties, the Princesses, the Dukes of York, Clarence, Kent, Cumberland, Cambridge, Sussex, and Gloucester, and Princess Charlotte of Wales, breakfasted together at the Queen's Palace. At half past twelve, her Majesty, attended by the Princesses, proceeded to the Duke of Cumberland’s apartments in St James's Palace, to dress. The Royal Party then proceeded to the Grand Council Chamber, conducted by the Earl of Morton and Col Desbrow. Her Majesty’s approach being announced, the centre door was thrown open; her Majesty entered about ten minutes past two o’clock, and took her station between the second and third window, leaning against a marble slab table. Her Majesty, as usual, it being the celebration of her own birthday, was dressed very plain. The Princesses arranged themselves on her Majesty's left hand, according to their ages. Their attendants stood nearly under the throne. The Royal Dukes stood near their Royal Sisters—Her Majesty having taken her station to receive the congratulations of the company and the presentations, the Lord Chamberlain waved his wand to Sir W Parsons, who was attending in an anti-room behind the throne, with his Majesty's band, to perform the Ode for the New Year. The presentations were very numerous; and the illuminations in the evening very general.11

How to conduct yourself in the presence of royalty

Fanny Burney recorded in her diary:

Not even the Princesses, ever speak in the presence of the King and Queen, but to answer what is immediately said by themselves. There are, indeed, occasions in which this is set aside, from particular encouragement given at the moment; but it is not less a rule, and it is one very rarely infringed.12

However, Fanny’s friend, Mrs Delany told her:

When the queen or the king speak to you, not to answer with mere monosyllables. The queen often complains to me of the difficulty with which she can get any conversation as she not only always has to start the subjects, but, commonly, entirely to support them: and she says there is nothing she so much loves as conversation, and nothing she finds so hard to get.13

No coughing, sneezing or fidgeting whilst in the presence of their Majesties was allowed. Fanny wrote:

In the first place, you must not cough. If you find a cough tickling in your throat you must arrest it from making any sound; if you find yourself choking with the forbearance, you must choke – but not cough.

In the second place, you must not sneeze. If you have a vehement cold, you must take no notice of it; if your nose membranes feel a great irritation, you must hold your breath; if a sneeze still insists upon making its way, you must oppose it, by keeping your teeth grinding together; if the violence of the repulse breaks some blood-vessel, you must break the blood-vessel – but not sneeze.

In the third place, you must not, upon any account, stir either hand or foot. If, by chance, a black pin runs into your head, you must not take it out. If the pain is very great, you must be sure to bear it without wincing; if it brings the tears into your eyes, you must not wipe them off; if they give you a tingling by running down your cheeks, you must look as if nothing was the matter.14

Public viewing

Apparently, it was possible to watch the drawing room from a viewing gallery:

There are three rooms in which those desirous of seeing the company go to court may stand, by obtaining tickets from the lord chamberlain: the guard-chamber, the royal presence-chamber, and the privy-chamber; in the last only, they also see the king, queen, and royal family pass, as it is between the levee-rooms and the outer drawing-room.15

 

Headshot of Rachel Knowles author with sea in background(2021)
Rachel Knowles writes clean/Christian historical romance set in the time of Jane Austen. She has been sharing her research on this blog since 2011. Rachel lives in the beautiful Georgian seaside town of Weymouth, Dorset, on the south coast of England, with her husband, Andrew.

Find out more about Rachel's books and sign up for her newsletter here.

If you have enjoyed this blog and want to encourage me and help me to keep making my research freely available, please buy me a virtual cup of coffee by clicking the button below.

 

Notes

  1. Rachel Knowles,  A Reason for Romance (2021).
  2. Lamb, Charles, A book explaining the ranks and dignities of British Society (1809).
  3. The Times online archive, 9 March 1810.
  4. Lamb op cit.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Ibid.
  7. Ibid.
  8. La Belle Assemblée (January 1810).
  9. Ibid.
  10. Lamb op cit.
  11. Gentleman’s Magazine (January 1810).
  12. Burney, Fanny, Diary and letters of Madame D'Arblay, edited by her niece, Charlotte Barrett Volume III (1842).
  13. Ibid.
  14. Ibid.
  15. Lamb op cit.

Sources used include: 

Burney, Fanny, Diary and letters of Madame D'Arblay, edited by her niece, Charlotte Barrett Volume III (1842) 

Gentleman’s Magazine (1810) Lamb, Charles, A book explaining the ranks and dignities of British Society (1809) 

La Belle Assemblée (January 1810)

The Times online archive

Thursday, 21 October 2021

Top 30 posts from 10 years of blogging on the Regency History blog

Me (Rachel Knowles) with my husband Andrew at White Nothe, Dorset (2021)
Me (Rachel Knowles) with my husband Andrew
at White Nothe, Dorset (2021)
This month I’m celebrating 10 years of the Regency History blog. I started this blog to record and share the research I was doing into the Regency period (1811-20) as background for The Merry Romances. I became distracted by the history and expanded my research to cover what I call the long Regency – from about 1780-1830. 
 
You can read what I mean by this in my all-time top post: When is the Regency era? 
 
As a result of my research, I decided to set the first book, A Perfect Match, in 1788-9, some 20 years before the start of the Regency. The five sequels tell the stories of the children from the couple who got together in the first book. A Reason for Romance is set in 1810 and A Single Obsession (due to be published in 2022) is set in 1811. 
 
My first post went up on this blog on 1 October 2011 and this is my 357th blog post (not including pages). I’ve researched lots of different areas of Regency era life as well as some of the people who lived in late Georgian Britain and the places they lived in and visited. I’ve blogged about exhibitions and events and posted reviews of historical non-fiction and clean Regency era romance as well as cheat guides to some of the classic novels of the period. 
 
You may have read lots of these posts or perhaps you have only recently discovered my blog. You will find a list of what I’ve blogged about here or in the index tab, except for my Regency romance reviews which have got their own index under Regency reviews. 
 
Sign up to my newsletter to stay in touch 
 
If you haven’t already done so, please sign up to my newsletter so you’ll know what’s new on my blog every month. The added bonus at the moment is my blog birthday giveaway. Answer a simple question in my newsletter for a chance to win one of my books or a $10 Amazon voucher. The giveaway has now ended, but you can still sign up to my newsletter: Sign up here.
 
 
Regency History 10th birthday giveaway
 
My all-time top 30 posts (clickable links)
 
 
The first quadrille at Almack's from The Reminiscences and Recollections of Captain Gronow (1850)
 
 
A drawing room at St James' Palace from The Microcosm of London (1808-10)

 
Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire by Thomas Gainsborough in South Sketch Gallery, Chatsworth

 
Peers (from left to right): duke, marquess, earl, viscount, baron from A book explaining the ranks and  dignitaries of British Society (1809)

 
George III in a white wig; George IV, Maria Fitzherbert and William Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire, showing the effect of powder in the hair
 
 
Part of the Forum, Rome (2005)
 
 
Ladies in a phaeton from Gallery of Fashion by Nikolaus von Heideloff (1794)
 
 
The Opera House from The Microcosm of London (1808-10)
 
 
Lady Elizabeth Foster, later Duchess of Devonshire, in South Sketch Gallery, Chatsworth
 
 
A collage of 40 Regency headdresses and hairstyles by year 1811-20 from La Belle Assemblée and Ackermann's Repository

 
Ladies' voucher for Almack's - used with kind permission STG Misc. Box 7 (Almack's Voucher) © The Huntington Library, San Marino, CA
 
 
George Brummell from The History of White's  by Hon Algernon Bourke (1892)

 
 
Lyme Park - Pemberley
 
 
Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester from A Biographical Memoir of Frederick,  Duke of York and Albany by John Watkins (1827)
 
 
Andrew and Rachel Knowles as "Elizabeth Bennet and Mr Darcy"
 
 
Vauxhall Gardens from The Microcosm of London (1808-10)
 
 
Detail from Merton College, Oxford: a marriage ceremony  in the chapel by J Bluck (1813) after AC Pugin Wellcome Collection used under Creative Commons Licence (CC BY 4.0)
 
 
Ballroom, Scarborough, from Poetical Sketches of Scarborough by F Wrangham, W Combe and J B Papworth Pub Ackermann (1813) from Metropolitan Museum of Art
 
 
Carlton House from Pall Mall from Ackermann's Repository (1809)
 
 
Highest Life in London - Tom & Jerry 'sporting a toe' among the Corinthians at Almacks in the West by IR & G Cruikshank in Tom and Jerry: Life in London by P Egan (1869 first pub 1821)
 
 
Nostell Priory
 
 
Brummell as an old man from The History of White's  by Hon Algernon Bourke (1892)
 
 
The Orchestra at Vauxhall from London Pleasure  Gardens of the 18th Century by W & AE Wroth (1896)
 
 
From left: Lady Anne Barnard, Lady Elizabeth Foster and Lady Caro Lamb
 
 
Gold State Coach at the Royal Mews, Buckingham Palace
 
 
Tom getting the best of a Charley by George Cruikshank (1820) from The man of pleasure by R Nevill (1913)
 
 
Mrs Fitzherbert from The Creevey Papers (1904)
 
 
Sir William presents Elizabeth Bennet to Mr Darcy as a desirable partner by C E Brock (1895) From Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen (1895 edition)
 
 
The House of Commons from The Microcosm of London (1808-10)
 

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Rachel Knowles writes clean/Christian historical romance set in the time of Jane Austen. She has been sharing her research on this blog since 2011. Rachel lives in the beautiful Georgian seaside town of Weymouth, Dorset, on the south coast of England, with her husband, Andrew.

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